Flashcards in Viniculture Deck (52):
What is table wine
Means wine that is dry and still,it contains little to no sugar when bottled and has no carbonation.
When does viniculture begin
At harvest, this is were viticulture and viniculture cross into the same area. The ripeness level strongly effects the amount of sugar & acid in the grape which will strongly influence wine production and quality. The type of grape is also a factor
What is viniculture
The decisions made and procedures performed in the winery that help shape the flavors, quality and characteristics of the wine
What do winemakers called the grapes just after they've been pressed
What are some flavors that French oak contributes to wines that are aged in it
Elegant vanilla, baking spices like cinnamon clothes and nutmeg.
What are flavors that American oak contributes in wine
Strachan vanilla toasted coconut and dill
What is the size of a standard wine barrel or barrique
50 to 60 gallons of wine
For premium wine production what temperature range should wine fermentation occur
50°F to 95°F
What is the proper temperature for cool fermentation
50 to 60°F
What are oxigination flavors that you may fin in wine
Caramell butterscotch honey brown sugar brown sugar and molasses
What flavors will a lightly toasted barrel gives wines
Slighted toasted bread or nuts
Heavy toasted barrels will give a wine what flavors
Roasted coffee beans or dark chocolate
What the four basic stages of methods champs noise or the traditional method
Primary fermentation, secondary fermentation, riddling and disgorgement
What is primary fermentation
The first step in methods champenoise when a base still wine is made the overall goal is to create alcohol
What is secondary fermentation
The second step in the methods champenoise. The base wine is poured into bottles a mixture of an exact amount of yeast and sugar called liqueur de tirage is added to the bottle. The bottle is capped. This creates the carbonation of the wine
What is the name of the rack used in the riddling stage to make champagnes
Pupitres - an A-framed sandwich board that has holes just large enough to hold the neck of the bottle. Overtime the angle of these bottles is increased and tell they are eventually almost completely upside down. To ensure that the yeast does not stick during this gradual process, Each bottle well received qtr twist daily until the yeast plug forms
What is the machine used to speed the riddling process when making champagne
A gyropallet - the bottles are stacked upside down and then slowly rocked back and forth. This causes the yeast cells to quickly for the yeast plug
What is disgorgement
The final step in the champenoise method, the neck is frozen to remove the yeast cap and than it is corked
What is dosage
Refers to the adding of liqueur d'expedition, made up of still wine and pure cane sugar. This is documented in the bottle by terms like brut extra dry and doux depending on the amount of sugar
What is the difference between the chartmat method and the methode champenoise
The chamat method uses large tanks for the second fermentation, where as the methode champenoise the second fermentation takes place in the bottle. The chamat method is much faster
What is the transfer method
There is no riddling or disgorging, the bottles are emptied into a pressurized vessel blending all bottles together, then it is clarified under pressure rebottled and dosed. Bottle will say "fermented in the bottle" instead of "fermented in this bottle"
What is the German name for adding sugar to a wine to sweeten it?
Sussreserve or "sweet reserve"
How is sweet sherry sweetened?
By adding unfermented grape juice that has been cooked down to a rich sweet syrup
What are two types of wines that might be used with "late harvest" grapes?
1. A high alcohol wine if fermentation is entirely completed.
2. More common is for sweet wines that that have their fermentation ended early to retain their natural residual sugar.
Splalese means what in German?
" late pick" is the literal translation for what we refer to as late harvest grapes.
Vandange Tardive means what is Alsace?
"Late Harvest" is the literal translation. Though they are labeled as late harvest they are usually fermented to completely dry.
Botrytised wines are created how?
These wines require the mold botrytis cinerea or noble rot to I infect ultra ripe thin skinned grapes. The mold removes water from the grape causing it to shrivel. These grapes produce sweet wines that have stone fruit characteristics, with honey and sweet corn that is contributed by the botrytis grape.
How are ice wines produced?
From late harvest grapes that are partial led frozen
What is the term for ice wines in Germany?
If a winemaker wanted to produce top-quality wine which method would he or she most likely select to harvest the grapes?
A. Hand harvesting
B. Mechanical harvesting
A. HAnd harvesting
What is the primary difference between The production of red wines and white wine?
Red wines are fermented with their skins on whites are fermented without their skins
The stage of the winemaking process during which solids such as skin seeds and stems are separated from the liquid is called what?
White wines be produced from red wine grapes?
All wines should be clear?
What is fining
Adding a substance to a wine to remove the cloudiness
What is sur lie aging
Allowing a wine to age in contact with it's dead yeast
What is racking
Clarifying the wine by moving it away from sediment
What is batty age
Stirring up sediment and dead yeast cells
Sparkling wine made using methods champenoise well ultimately go through two separate fermentations one in bulk and one in the bottle
Outside of the Champagne region of France, methode champenoise is more commonly called what
Fortified wines are made stronger by adding what
The addition of high proof Brandy
Botrytis is a______________
A mold that attacks grapes and concentrates their sugar content
What is the French name for a barrel that holds 50 to 60gallons
What is pigeage?
Punching down the cap
Élevage refers to what stage in the wine's production?
What process involves the intracellular fermentation of whole berries, where in sugars inside the grape are converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of yeast?
Pierces disease and example of what type of disease?
The metabolism of yeast cells convert sugar to alcohol and _________.
The tech nique have grafting Vitis vinifera vines onto American rootstock was developed in response to what vineyard malady?
Two or false? Gobelet Vines are spur – pruned and head – trained.
What is the term that refers to the climate of a single vineyard site