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Basic Wine Knowledge > Viniculture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Viniculture Deck (52):
1

What is table wine

Means wine that is dry and still,it contains little to no sugar when bottled and has no carbonation.

2

When does viniculture begin

At harvest, this is were viticulture and viniculture cross into the same area. The ripeness level strongly effects the amount of sugar & acid in the grape which will strongly influence wine production and quality. The type of grape is also a factor

3

What is viniculture

The decisions made and procedures performed in the winery that help shape the flavors, quality and characteristics of the wine

4

What do winemakers called the grapes just after they've been pressed

Must

5

What are some flavors that French oak contributes to wines that are aged in it

Elegant vanilla, baking spices like cinnamon clothes and nutmeg.

6

What are flavors that American oak contributes in wine

Strachan vanilla toasted coconut and dill

7

What is the size of a standard wine barrel or barrique

50 to 60 gallons of wine

8

For premium wine production what temperature range should wine fermentation occur

50°F to 95°F

9

What is the proper temperature for cool fermentation

50 to 60°F

10

What are oxigination flavors that you may fin in wine

Caramell butterscotch honey brown sugar brown sugar and molasses

11

What flavors will a lightly toasted barrel gives wines

Slighted toasted bread or nuts

12

Heavy toasted barrels will give a wine what flavors

Roasted coffee beans or dark chocolate

13

What the four basic stages of methods champs noise or the traditional method

Primary fermentation, secondary fermentation, riddling and disgorgement

14

What is primary fermentation

The first step in methods champenoise when a base still wine is made the overall goal is to create alcohol

15

What is secondary fermentation

The second step in the methods champenoise. The base wine is poured into bottles a mixture of an exact amount of yeast and sugar called liqueur de tirage is added to the bottle. The bottle is capped. This creates the carbonation of the wine

16

What is the name of the rack used in the riddling stage to make champagnes

Pupitres - an A-framed sandwich board that has holes just large enough to hold the neck of the bottle. Overtime the angle of these bottles is increased and tell they are eventually almost completely upside down. To ensure that the yeast does not stick during this gradual process, Each bottle well received qtr twist daily until the yeast plug forms

17

What is the machine used to speed the riddling process when making champagne

A gyropallet - the bottles are stacked upside down and then slowly rocked back and forth. This causes the yeast cells to quickly for the yeast plug

18

What is disgorgement

The final step in the champenoise method, the neck is frozen to remove the yeast cap and than it is corked

19

What is dosage

Refers to the adding of liqueur d'expedition, made up of still wine and pure cane sugar. This is documented in the bottle by terms like brut extra dry and doux depending on the amount of sugar

20

What is the difference between the chartmat method and the methode champenoise

The chamat method uses large tanks for the second fermentation, where as the methode champenoise the second fermentation takes place in the bottle. The chamat method is much faster

21

What is the transfer method

There is no riddling or disgorging, the bottles are emptied into a pressurized vessel blending all bottles together, then it is clarified under pressure rebottled and dosed. Bottle will say "fermented in the bottle" instead of "fermented in this bottle"

22

What is the German name for adding sugar to a wine to sweeten it?

Sussreserve or "sweet reserve"

23

How is sweet sherry sweetened?

By adding unfermented grape juice that has been cooked down to a rich sweet syrup

24

What are two types of wines that might be used with "late harvest" grapes?

1. A high alcohol wine if fermentation is entirely completed.

2. More common is for sweet wines that that have their fermentation ended early to retain their natural residual sugar.

25

Splalese means what in German?

" late pick" is the literal translation for what we refer to as late harvest grapes.

26

Vandange Tardive means what is Alsace?

"Late Harvest" is the literal translation. Though they are labeled as late harvest they are usually fermented to completely dry.

27

Botrytised wines are created how?

These wines require the mold botrytis cinerea or noble rot to I infect ultra ripe thin skinned grapes. The mold removes water from the grape causing it to shrivel. These grapes produce sweet wines that have stone fruit characteristics, with honey and sweet corn that is contributed by the botrytis grape.

28

How are ice wines produced?

From late harvest grapes that are partial led frozen

29

What is the term for ice wines in Germany?

Eiswein

30

If a winemaker wanted to produce top-quality wine which method would he or she most likely select to harvest the grapes?
A. Hand harvesting

B. Mechanical harvesting

A. HAnd harvesting

31

What is the primary difference between The production of red wines and white wine?

Red wines are fermented with their skins on whites are fermented without their skins

32

The stage of the winemaking process during which solids such as skin seeds and stems are separated from the liquid is called what?

Pressing

33

White wines be produced from red wine grapes?

True

34

All wines should be clear?

True

35

What is fining

Adding a substance to a wine to remove the cloudiness

36

What is sur lie aging

Allowing a wine to age in contact with it's dead yeast

37

What is racking

Clarifying the wine by moving it away from sediment

38

What is batty age

Stirring up sediment and dead yeast cells

39

Sparkling wine made using methods champenoise well ultimately go through two separate fermentations one in bulk and one in the bottle

True

40

Outside of the Champagne region of France, methode champenoise is more commonly called what

Methode traditionale

41

Fortified wines are made stronger by adding what

The addition of high proof Brandy

42

Botrytis is a______________

A mold that attacks grapes and concentrates their sugar content

43

What is the French name for a barrel that holds 50 to 60gallons

Barrique

44

What is pigeage?

Punching down the cap

45

Élevage refers to what stage in the wine's production?

Maturation

46

What process involves the intracellular fermentation of whole berries, where in sugars inside the grape are converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of yeast?

Carbonic fermentation

47

Pierces disease and example of what type of disease?

Bacterial

48

The metabolism of yeast cells convert sugar to alcohol and _________.

Carbon dioxide

49

The tech nique have grafting Vitis vinifera vines onto American rootstock was developed in response to what vineyard malady?

Phylloxera

50

Two or false? Gobelet Vines are spur – pruned and head – trained.

True

51

What is the term that refers to the climate of a single vineyard site

Meso climate

52

True or false? American oak barrels are typically characterized by a greater concentration of lactones and vanilla then French oak barrels, and generally have a more obvious coconut aroma.

True