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Flashcards in Vision & Learning Deck (24):

T/F: A learning disability can be a direct result of a concomitant handicap, such as sensory impairment or intellectual disability.

FALSE FALSE FALSE!!! ***important - NOT a direct result.
-Learning disabilities are direct results of CNS abnormalities

-ALL FACTORS must be ID'd and should be attempted to fix.


What law/act states that children with disabilities and their parents share the SAME legal right to a free and appropriate education as children W/O disabilities?

-It's aged from birth-21, is evaluated by a multidisciplinary team, and ensures education will be the LEAST restrictive environment

IDEA - individuals with disabilities education act


Which document is aged 3-21, and provides an INDIVIDUAL education plan based on the child's disabilities?

IEP - individual education plan
-states current levels of academic performance, educational needs, and specifies goals required by law ---> reviewed annually.

-IFSPs exist too (Individualized family service plan) - children birth to 3


What is a psychoeducational evaluation? Who usually does it? How long does it take? What info can be acquired?

-Eval performed to determine the CAUSE of academic/behavioral problems
-certified school psychologist - 5-8 hours!!!! Appropriate referrals made afterwards (SLP, OD, Neuro, etc.) Can assess cognitive functioning too (IQ level)


Mean IQ score? Two available IQ scales? What does a FULL-SCALE IQ score indicate?

100 +/- 15

Wechsler scale (WISC) - provides VERBAL and PERFORMANCE IQs

FULL SCALE - indicative of what LEVEL of achievement you can expect from a child.


On a Wechsler IQ scale, which assess VERBAL and PERFORMANCE scales, having a lower score on WHICH scale may indicate a visual processing issue, and potentially warrant an eye exam?

PERFORMANCE scale lower than verbal by ~12-15points

-visual perceptual testing recommended.


What are the four components of ACADEMIC achievement when doing a psychoeducational eval?

Reading, writing, spelling, math


MOST COMMON CAUSE of a learning disability?

READING disability.

Reading achievement falls substantially below what's expected given age, intelligence, and age-appropriate education.


Name the STAGES (6) of reading development, and the quick importance of each?

1) PRE-reading (birth-6) - parents read to kids
2) INITIAL reading (Preschool-Early elementary) T="ta"
3) CONFIRMATION/FLUENCY (early elementary) -decoding, word recognition, increased vocab
4) NEW INFO (4th-8th grade) - expand vocab/background knowledge
5) MULTIPLE VIEWPOINTS (late middle-early high school) - complex
6) CONSTRUCTION/RECONSTRUCTION (late high/college) - reading for OWN needs and to create NEW knowledge.


Two eye movements used in reading? Normal "span" of each?

Fixations: 3-4 letters to the left, 9 to the right (see what's coming up)

Saccades: avg=8 characters when reading ahead
-backward saccades/regressions: used for comprehension/verification


"Learning to read" occurs in which grades?

KEY elements NOT required at this stage? ***

Grades 1-3


Focus is on VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT; characters are large enough/few enough that accomm/bv not required.


"Reading to learn" Grades?

What becomes important (3 factors)?

Grades 4 and up

-ACCOMMODATION, BV, and OCULOMOTOR CONTROL important to prevent loss of place.


Children w/ reading difficulty/dyslexia have problems with all of the following...

-Phonological awareness (recognizing individual sounds)
-decoding (sounding out)
-encoding (spelling)
-letter reversals
-poor rapid naming



DYSPHONETIC: diff. SOUNDING OUT words - but can recognize by SIGHT

DYSEIDETIC: diff. Recognizing words by VISUAL APPEARANCE - but can sound out sounds (writes Laf for laugh)


Children w/ reading disabilities have more trouble in the (Parvo/Magno) pathway?

MAGNO - quickly moving targets, low/middle SFs, MOTION.
-responsible for ORGANIZING NEXT SACCADE/erase previous fixation


Name the "syndrome" that describes a perceptual dysfunction d/t difficulty w/ light source, luminance, wavelength, intensity, and color contrast?

-What's the suggestion to fix this?
-Has the syndrome (or suggested Tx) been validated?

SCOTOPIC sensitivity syndrome/Meares-Irlin Syndrome

-IRLEN (tinted) lenses/transparencies to eliminate discomfort
-thought that if a kid benefits from them, he/she has underlying BV/Accomm/OMD problem

-***NO. NO SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE proving syndrome or treatment.


What are some behavioral characteristics of ADHD?

Three clinical SUBTYPES of ADHD?


1) Hyperactive-impulsive (less inattentive)
2) Inattentive (less hyperactive)
3) Combined (hyperactive AND inattentive) - MOST COMMON.


REQUIREMENTS for a proper diagnosis of ADHD? (3)

Definition - behavior deemed inappropriate for pt age.

1) MUST occur before 7Y/O
2) MUST continue minimum of 6 MONTHS
3) MUST create handicap in at least 2 AREAS of kid's life (school, playground, home, etc)


Pharmacological treatment with ADHD meds (methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine) can cause what two major ocular S/Es?

Dopamine (thus sympathetic)agonists?

(and Dry eye, AACG risk)


ADHD has overlapping symptoms compared to which BV disorder?


-CI more prevalent in ADHD pts, kids w/ CI tend to have more ADHD symptoms! (Proven in CITT study)


Children with Learning-Related vision problems also tend to have similar complaints (such as frequent reversal errors, losing place when reading, not performing to potential) to which with WHICH type of disability?

LEARNING disabilities!! Often similar/linked! Also have poor concentration, difficulty completing work on time, difficulty copying stuff from board.


Two effects of WHICH two main factors may dramatically alter the appearance of how a child is doing in your exam chair compared to the classroom?

Effects of TIME and STRESS - will dramatically alter how a child "seems" in front of you vs. in the classroom.


Do vision problems cause learning disabilities?

Once again --> NO. CNS abnormalities do.


Technical definition of a "Learning Disability"?

HETEROGENOUS group of INTRINSIC disorders to an individual that are assumed to be due to CNS DYSFUNCTION.

Informal: not meeting expected goals/performing at expected level

-examples: Language (reading-dyslexia, writing-dysgraphia), reasoning (organizing/integrating thoughts), non-verbal (motor)