Flashcards in Vitamin E Deck (23):
What does tocopherol mean?
Toco = childbirth
Pher = the bring forth
ol = alcohol
What is Vitamin E AKA
What are the differences of isomers present between natural and synthetic vitamin E?
Natural: only biologically active isomers present
Synthetic: Fatty acid attached, racemic mixture of isomers
What is the difference of tocopherols present between natural and synthetic vitamin E?
Natural: mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols
Synthetic: Alpha-tocopherols only
Vitamin E supplements prevent cancer and heart disease
How are tocopherols and tocotrienols absorbed?
Fatty acid removed by lipases and bile is released into SI. 50% absorbed by passive diffusion in SI.
Where does absorption of tocopherols and tocotrienols happen primarily in the SI?
How are tocopherols and tocotrienols transported to the liver?
Packed into chylomicrons
What happens to tocopherols and tocotrienols after they go to the liver?
Alph-tocopherol transport protein incorporates most alpha and gamma tocopherol and tocotrienols into VLDL
Where is 90% of Vitamin E stored?
Where is the remaining 10% of vitamin E stored?
Blood, liver, lungs, heart, muscles, adrenal glands, spleen, brain.
What are some antioxidant properties of vitamin E?
Found in plasma membrane
Dietary intake decreases risk of heart disease, cancer, age-related macular degen.
Donates H to free radicals to protect PUFA in membrane
What is the absolute best source of vitamin E?
What sources are high alpha-tocopherols found?
Canola oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, cottonseed oil, almonds
What sources are high gamma-tocopherols found?
Corn oil, soybean oil, sesame oil, walnuts, peanuts, pecans
What sources are high tocotrienols found?
Oats, rye, barley, rice bran oil, wheat germ, palm oil
Vitamin E deficiency - tocopherols is rare
What are some key symptoms of hypovitaminosis E?
Myopathy, hemolytic anemia (infants only), loss of tendon reflexes, loss of coordination, peripheral neuropathy
Who is most at risk for vitamin E deficiency?
1. Fatty malabs disorder patients
2. Premature infants
What is the safe upper limit of Vitamin E?
What are the toxicity symptoms of vitamin E (4)
What vitamin E intake level is associated with all cause mortality?