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Flashcards in Volcanoes and Earthquakes Deck (16):

Where the volcanoes are found?

At destructive and constructive plate margins.


Volcano at destructive plate margin

The magma rises trough cracks in the crust called vents.


Volcano at constructive plate margin

The magma rises up into the gap.


When the earthquakes occur?

At all three types of plate margin.



Caused by tension that builds up at all three types of plate margin. Destructive-plate gets stuck. Constructive-along cracks within the plates. Conservative-plates grind and get stuck. This causes vibrations.


Focus of earthquake

The shock waves spread out from the focus. The point in the earth where the earthquake starts.


The epicenter

is the point on the Earth's surface, straight above the focus.


Magnitude scale

Earthquakes are measured by the magnitude scale.


Primary effects of earthquakes

Immediate impacts of the ground shaking.
-buildings and bridges collapses
-people injured, killed by buildings
-roads, railways, ports, airports are damaged
-electricity cables, gas, water pipes are damaged


Secondary effects of earthquakes

Happen later on, as a result of the primary effects.
-triggers landslides, tsunamis
-leaking gas, starting fire
-homeless people could die
-shortage of clean water, lack of sanitation
-unemployment, lost of tourists
-repairs, reconstruction-very expensive


Immediate responses to earthquakes

Have to be dealt imminently to stop further loss of life
-rescue trapped people
-recover dead bodies to prevent spread of diseases
-set temporary shelter
-provide water, food and medical treatment


Long-term responses to earthquakes

Dealt with the longer term.
-re-house people
-reconstruct, repair buildings
-reconnect broken communications
-improve the resistance of buildings
-economic recovery(promoting tourism)


Primary effects of volcano

-buildings and roads are destroyed by lava
-people injured or killed
-crops are damaged and water is contaminated
-people and animals are suffocated by volcanic gases


Secondary effects of volcano

-mud flows, when volcanic material mixes with water
-flooding, hot rocks melt ice or snow
-lack of tourism
-people are homeless
-recovery after eruption takes a long time, money


Immediate responses to volacno

-evacuate people before eruption
-provide food, drink, shelter
-treat injured people
-rescue people


Long-term responses to volacano

-rebuild, resettle affected buildings
-repair and reconnect infrastructure
-improve monitoring and evacuation plans
-boosting the economy