W3: INTERPLAY OF NATURE AND NURTURE Flashcards Preview

General Psychology > W3: INTERPLAY OF NATURE AND NURTURE > Flashcards

Flashcards in W3: INTERPLAY OF NATURE AND NURTURE Deck (12)
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1
Q

what is Monozygotic twins?

A

(identical) twins
o Formed from a single fertilized egg o Share % 100 of their genes
o Share the same genetic structure

2
Q

what is Dizygotic (fraternal) twins?

A

o Come from two separate eggs fertilized by
two different sperm cells
o Share % 50 of their genes
o Not genetically identical, similar to siblings

3
Q

what is the difference between biological and adoptive parents when it comes to genetic similarities?

A

Genetic similarity is 50 % of the biological parents

and the is no genetic similarity with adoptive parents

4
Q

what is the Genotype?

A

An individual’s genetic information e.g., all genetic codes

5
Q

what is the Phenotype?

A

An individual’s directly observable characteristics e.g., weight, height, eye colour etc.

6
Q

what are chromosomes?

A

structures within the cells that store and transmit genetic information

7
Q

what is the DNA?

A

the chemical substance that makes up chromosomes

8
Q

what is a gene?

A

-Segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
-Contain the genetic information transmitted from a parent to a child
• A code that influence some aspect of a structure of function of the body

9
Q

what are polymorphic genes?

A

o Genes with more than one version o Created by mutations
o Explain individual differences
• ex. The gene determining your eye color: blue, brown

10
Q

what is the difference between dominant and recessive genes?

A

o A dominant gene reveals its traits when it is present
o A recessive gene reveals its traits only in the absence of a dominant gene
• Blue eyes, light hair, normal vision, freckles

11
Q

what is polygenic?

A

Behaviors/traits controlled by a large number of genes

o Intelligence and personality traits

12
Q

when does Choromosomal abnormalities occur?

A

Damaged or malformed choromosomes —abnormal traits/behaviors
o i.e. Down syndrome (mental retardation, physical irregularities)àan additional 21st choromosome