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Flashcards in W5: Memory Deck (23)
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1
Q

what does encode mean?

A

Represent information in some form (sound, visual image, meaning) in the memory system

2
Q

what are the two forms in which our brain stores information?

A
  • The stage model of memory

- the levels of processing model of memory

3
Q

what does the sensory register do?

A
  • Keeps an exact replica of a sensory experience -A snapshot, echo
  • Holds information very briefly 15 milliseconds
4
Q

what does the attention do?

A

• Attention transfer to short-term memory

5
Q

what does the short term memory do (STM)?

A
  • Keeps information that is selected for further processing • Holds information briefly
  • Holds 5-9 bits of information

• Serves as our working memory
-Keeps information + thinking about/processing the information

6
Q

What are the two strategies used to expand the limited capacity of the STM?

A

-Rehearsal: Mental repetition of information
oTransform incoming information into acoustic codes
-Chunking: Grouping/organizing information into meaningful categories
-Chunk: a unit of memory

7
Q

what does the long term memory (LTM) do?

A

• Keeps information for longer periods of time • Has unlimited capacity

8
Q

what are 4 types of long term memory?

A

Procedural memory
Declarative memory
Episodic memory
Semantic memory

9
Q

what does the procedural memory entail?

A
  • Memory for motor movements and skills

- Accessed through performance §i.e. Riding a bicycle

10
Q

what does declarative memory mean and which 2 categories fall under it?

A

-Memory for material that can be put into word
-Episodic memory
Semantic memory

11
Q

what are episodic and semantic memory?

A

EP

  • Memory for specific experiences
  • Reference to time and place
  • e.g., Can you tell me the first day that you come to Istanbul?

SE

  • Memory for meaning
  • No reference to time and place
  • Stronger than episodic memory
  • e.g., Can you tell me the capital city of Turkey? E.g., Do you remember how you learnt it?
12
Q

how does organisation in the LTM happen?

A

An associative network- memories are linked through experience

13
Q

what are the two types of processing used in the memory register?

A

Superficial processing

Deep processing

14
Q

what is the difference between superficial and deep processing and which stage do the belong?

A

Superficial processing= Perceptual information-STM
Deep processing= Meaning
-Elaboration: Creating associations between new and existing memories= LTM
-i.e. Linking a new concept with your personal experiences

15
Q

what are the 4 theories of forgetting?

A

-decay theory, reconstruction theory, interference theory and motivated forgetting

16
Q

what does the decay theory say?

A
  • Time causes memory traces to fade

* Has explanatory power for the sensory register and STM, but not LTM

17
Q

what is the interference theory?

A

• Other memories interfere with the storage and retrieval of information

  • Similarity increases interference, particularly in episodic memories
  • Applies to LTM and STM
18
Q

what are the two types of interference in the interference theory?

A
  • Proactive interference: Created by memories from prior learning
  • Retroactive interference: Created by memories from later learning
19
Q

what is the reconstruction theory?

A

Information is not forgotten, but distorted during retrieval

  • Schema: Associated networks consisting of beliefs, knowledge and expectations
  • More distortion in episodic than in semantic memory
20
Q

what is motivated forgetting and which concept?

A

-Forgetting what is threatening or upsetting
-Freud and the concept of repression
-Pushing unpleasant or dangerous information into the unconscious
But moderate emotional arousal enhance memory

21
Q

what are the two types of Amnesia

A
  • Retrograde amnesia

* Anterograde amnesia

22
Q

what is retrograde amnesia?

A

An inability to retrieve old long-term memories

  • Usually not for the entire lifetime
  • Extends back in time for a period of minutes or days
  • Caused by seizures, brain damage, concussion
23
Q

what is anterograde amnesia?

A

An inability to store or retrieve new information in long-term memory
-No knowledge of current events
-Usually affects the formation of long-term episodic memories, not
procedural memories
-Caused by surgery, damage to hippocampus, excessive alcohol consumption