W4: Basic principles of learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in W4: Basic principles of learning Deck (12)
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1
Q

what are 3 types of learning?

A

classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning

2
Q

what does classical conditioning entail?

A

• A form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires to elict an inborn response in an organism
o Discovered by Ivan Pavlov o Learning by association

3
Q

what is operant conditioning and who described it?

A

• A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence
o Learning from the consequences of one’s actions o Our behavior “operates” on the world
o Described by Thorndike

4
Q

what is thorndikes law of effect?

A

states the consequences of a response determine whether the response will be performed in the future
o Positive reinforcement
o Negative reinforcement
o Punishment

5
Q

what does positive reinforcement lead to?

A

• Increased probability of engaging in a behavior because of its positive consequences
o Studying for an examà success
o Participation in classà better recall of information

6
Q

what are operant response and positive reinforce?

A
  • Operant response: The behavior that becomes more frequent

* Positive reinforcer: Positive consequence/ reward

7
Q

what are primary and secondary reinforcers?

A

ØPrimary reinforcers: Innate (Food, water, warmth)

ØSecondary reinforcers: Learned (AA, money, “well done” )

8
Q

what is shaping

A

The method of successive approximations

9
Q

what is negative reinforcement?

A

Increased probability of engaging in a behavior because it causes the removal a negative event

10
Q

what does punishment lead to

A

Decreased probability of engaging in a behavior because of its negative consequences

  • Cheating in the exam failing the course
  • Driving while drunkàcar accident
11
Q

what are the 5 dangers of punishment?

A
  1. The use of punishment is often reinforcing to the punisher.
  2. Punishment often has a generalized inhibiting effect on the individual.
  3. We learn to dislike the person who inflicts the pain, and sometimes by reacting aggressively toward that person.
  4. Sometimes, it functions in the opposite way.
    i.e., criticism is likely to increase the criticized behaviour to
    ocur in the future.
  5. It does not teach the individual how to act more appropriately.
12
Q

what is observational learning?

A

Modeling
o Bandura
oLearning based on observation of the behaviors of others
oWatching aggressive modelsà aggressive behavior in children