What questions does the genetic paradigm focus on?
The genetic paradigm focuses on questions such as whether certain disorders are heritable &, if so, what is actually inherited
What is heritability?
Heritability is a population statistic, not a metric (individual) of the likelihood a particular person will inherit a disorder
How can environmental effects be classified?
Environmental effects can be classified as shared and non-shared. Non-shared are sometimes called unique
What does the study of molecular genetics seek to identify?
The study of molecular genetics seek to identify differences in the sequence & structure of genes as well as gene polymorphisms, such as SNP’s that may be involved in psychopathology
What has genetic research emphasised?
Research has emphasised the importance of gene-environment interactions
What is meant by the concept of ‘genes via environment’?
- The genes do their work via the environment in most cases
- e.g.s of genetic influence being manifested only under certain environmental conditions include poverty - IQ and early maltreatment - depression
- Thus we must not look just for the genes associated with mental illness but also for the conditions under which these genes must be expressed
What is the neuroscience paradigm concerned with?
The neuroscience paradigm is concerned with the ways in which the brain contributes to psychopathology
Which neurotransmitters have been implicated in psychological disorders?
Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and GABA have been implicated in a number of disorders
A number of brain areas have also been implicated in psychological disorders, name them.
- the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic & para-sympathetic nervous systems
- the HPA axis - which is responsible for the bosy’s response to stress
What are the main biological treatments for different disorders and, what is the main limitation with them?
- Biological treatments, primarily medications, are effective in treating many disorders
- However, they are not necessarily treating the cause of the problems
Why must we be careful of reductionism?
Although the brain plays an important role in our understanding of the causes of psychopathology, the brain cannot be taken in isolation from factors of the external environment, as this over-simplifiers complex interactions.
What 5 structures are contained within the limbic system?
- anterior cingulate
- septal area
a, the white matter in the brain consist of &
b, the grey matter in the brain consist of?
- The white matter consists of the tracts of myelinated fibres that connect cells
- The grey matter consists of the brains cells or neurons
What are 2 of the neurotransmitters studied in psychopathology and what are their functions?
- Norepinephrine and GABA
- Norepinephrine can produce states of high arousal
- GABA inhibits nerve impulses
What 3 structures are contained within the HPA Axis?
- Pituitary Gland
- Adrenal cortex
a. What influences are reflected in the cognitive behavioural paradigm?
b. Name an influential cognitive behavioural therapist
a. Behavioural therapy & cognitive science are influential on the cognitive behavioural paradigm
b. Aaron Beck is an influential cognitive behavioural therapist
What are some of the treatment techniques still used in the cognitive behavioural paradigm today?
Treatment techniques designed to alter consequences or reinforcers of a behaviour, such as time out and exposure, are still in use today.
- e.g. research on implicit memory promoted acceptance of the ideas of unconscious influences on behaviour.
- cognitive behaviour therapy uses behavioural therapy techniques & cognitive restructuring.
Which concepts form part of cognitive behavioural theories and treatments of psychopathology?
Cognitive science focuses on concepts such as schemas (a set or network of accumulated knowledge), attention, memory, and the unconscious
why is it not surprising that disturbances in emotion figure prominently in many different forms of psychopathology?
Emotions influence how we respond to problems & challenges, they help us organise our thoughts & actions, and guide our behaviour.
Emotions are comprised of a number of components, for instance, expressive, experiential and physiological components. When we consider psychopathology, it is important to consider which aspects of the emotional component is effected.
Give some examples of disorders where one or more component of emotion is disrupted.
- People with schizophrenia do not readily express their emotions outwardly, but report feeling emotions very strongly
- People with panic disorder experience excessive fear & anxiety when no actual danger is present
- People with depression may experience prolonged sadness & other negative feelings
- A person with antisocial personality disorder does not feel empathy
What other factors can influence psychopathology?
Sociocultural factors, such as gender, race, culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status can all influence the development of psychopathology
Environmental factors can trigger, exacerbate, or maintain symptoms that make up different disorders
What is social neuroscience attempting to understand?
Social neuroscience seeks to understand what happens to the brain during complex social situations.
*Gene-environment interaction studies are uncovering the ways in which the social environment in combination with certain genes can increase the risk for disorders.
Name some other issues that have been shown to influence psychopathology
*The quality of relationship(s)
*Serious Life Event
have all been found to influence psychopathology
When functioning effectively, Interpersonal relationships have been found to be important buffers against stresses & have benefits for physical and mental health.
What types of support can be used to improve a person’s interpersonal relationships?
Social psychologists use the ‘relational self’ (drawn from object relations & attachment theory) to emphasise the importance of interpersonal relationships
What are the key components of the Diathesis-Stress paradigm, which integrates several points of view?
- It is an integrative paradigm that links genetics, neurobiological, psychological and environmental factors
- Possessing the diathesis for a disorder increases a person’s risk of developing it, but does not by any means guarantee that a disorder will develop
- Both the diathesis and the stress must be present for the disorder to develop
- Psychopathology is unlikely to develop from the impact of any single factor