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Flashcards in Week 11 Schizophrenia (AJ) Deck (45):
0

Negative symptoms of Schizoprenia?

Consist of behavioural deficits: avolution, a sociality, anhedonia, blunted affect, and Alogia.
These symptoms tend to endure beyond an acute episode.

1

Avolution

Apathy... Lack of motivation and a seeming absence of interest in or an ability to persist in what are usually routine activities, including work, school, hobbies or social activities.

2

Asociality

Severe impairments in social relationships. Few friends, poor social skills and little interest in being with other people like Donna and Cath.

3

Anhedonia

A loss of interest in or a reported lessening of the experiences of pleasure. Two types of pleasure experiences in Anhedonia construct:
1. Consummatory pleasure... Amount of pleasure experienced in the moment / in the presence of something pleasurable.
2. Anticipatory pleasure...amount of expected pleasure from future events ...e.g. The amount of pleasure expect to experience when Santa comes.

4

Blunted affect

Refers to the outward expression of emotion... Stare vacantly, motionless muscles of the face, lifeless eyes.
Flat and toneless voice, etc..

5

Alogia

Refers to a significant reduction in the amount of speech. Do not talk much as o,opposed to Cath and DD and AS.

6

Two domains of negative symptoms

Experience domain.. Motivation, emotional experience, and socialty.
Expression domain... Expression of emotion, vocalisation.

7

Disorganised symptoms of schizophrenia...

Include disorganised speech (formal thought disorder) and disorganised behaviour.

8

Disorganised speech refers to ...

Problems in organising ideas and in speaking so that a listener can understand.
Speech may be disorganised by loose associations or derailment in which person may be more successful in communicating with a listener but has difficulty sticking to one topic.

9

What type of cognitive functioning is disorganised speech
Associated with?

Executive functioning ... Problem solving, planning, and making associations between thinking and feeling.
Disorganised speech also related to the ability to perceive semantic information (i.e. meaning).

10

Disorganised behaviour

...inexplicable bouts of agitation
...dress unusually
...childlike/ silly manner
... Hoard food
...collect garbage
...difficulty performing basic everyday tasks.

11

MoVEment SymPTOms :)

Grossly abnormal psychomotor behaviour...
Catatonia is the prime example...gesture repeatedly, peculiar finger, hand, arm movements, seemingly (often) purposeful.
Catatonic immobility: adoption of unusual postures for long periods of time.

12

DSM 5 CRITERIA FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA

2+ present for significant portion of time over 1 month period (at least 1 must be 1,2, or 3).
1. Delusions: fixed beliefs not amenable to change in light of contrary evidence.
2. Hallucinations: perception-like experiences occurring without external stimulus.
3. Disorganised thinking/speech (formal thought disorder).
4. Disorganised/catatonic behaviour ..a marked decrease in reactivity to the environment.
5. Negative symptoms.
Hmm... See lecture slides for more detail... :). Unless I get the time to write the details in :)

13

What are the TWO brief psychotic disorders?
With a third added...

1. Schizophreniform disorder ....same symptoms as schiz but last only from 1-6 months.
2. Brief psychotic disorder... Lasts from 1 day to 1 month and is often brought on by extreme stress, such as bereavement.
3. Scnizoaffective disorder comprises mixtures of symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorders...may require a depressive or manic episode listed in DSM 5.

14

Delusional Disorder

Troubled by persistent delusions of persecution or by delusional jealousy the unfounded conviction that the spouse or lover is unfaithful.

15

Prefrontal cortex

The region of the frontal lobe that helps maintain an image of threats and rewards faced, as well as maintain focus and plan relevant those threats and rewards.

16

Social selection hypothesis

An attempt to explain the correlation between social class and schizophrenia by arguing that people with schizophrenia tend to move downward in socioeconomic status.

17

Schizoaffective disorder

Diagnosis applied when a patient has symptoms of both mood disorder and either Schizophreniform disorder or schizophrenia.

18

Clinical high risk study

A study that identifies people who show subtle or early clinical signs of a disorder, such as schizophrenia, and then follows them over time to determine who might be at risk for developing the disorder.

19

Brief psychotic disorder

A disorder in which a person has a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms... Incoherence, loose associations, delusions, hallucinations... Immediately after a severely disturbing event...
The symptoms last more than 1 day but no more than 1 month.

20

Social skills training

Behaviour therapy procedures such as modelling and behaviour rehearsal, for teaching individuals how to meet others, talk to them, maintain eye contact, give and receive criticism, offer and accept compliments, make requests and express feelings, and otherwise improve their relations with others.

21

Loose associations

In schizophrenia
An aspect of disorganised thinking wherein the patient has difficulty sticking to one topic and drifts off on a train of associations evoked by an idea from the past.

22

Delusional disorder

A disorder in which the individual has persistent delusions and is very often contentious but has no disorganised thinking or hallucinations.

23

Catatonia

Constellation of schizophrenic symptoms including repetitive, peculiar, complex gestures and, in some cases, an almost manic increase in overall activity level.

24

Blunted affect

A negative symptom of schizophrenia that involves lack of outward expression or emotion.

25

Dementia praecox

An older term for schizophrenia, believed then to be an incur able and progressive deterioration of mental functioning beginning in adolescence.

26

Second-generation

Any of several drugs such as clozapine, used to treat schiz that produce fewer motor side effects that traditional antipsychotics while reducing positive and disorganised symptoms at least as effectively.... May however, be associated with increased and serious side effects of other varieties.

27

Consummatory pleasure

Pleasure experienced in the moment or in the presence of a pleasurable stimulus.

28

Sociogenic hypothesis

An idea that seeks causes in social conditions, for example, that being in a low social class can cause one to become schizophrenic.

29

Hallucinations

Perceptions in any sensory modality without relevant and adequate external stimuli.

30

Familial high risk study

A study involving the offspring of people with a disorder, such as schizophrenia, who have a high probability of later developing a disorder.

31

Positive symptoms

Behavioural excesses in schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions.

32

Grandiose delusions

Found in paranoid schizophrenia...delusional disorder, and mania, an exaggerated sense of one's importance, power, knowledge or identity.

33

Delusions

Beliefs contrary to reality, firmly held in spite of evidence to the contrary and common in paranoid disorders... Of control, belief that one is being manipulated by some external force such as radar, television or creature from outer space... Of grandeur, of persecution, etc...

34

Alogia

A negative symptom in schiz, marked by poverty of speech.

35

Catatonic immobility

A fixity of posture, sometimes grotesque, maintained for long periods, with accompanying muscular rigidity, trancelike state of consciousness, and waxy flexibility.

36

Anhedonia

A negative symptom in schiz or a symptom in depression in which the Individual experiences a loss of interest and pleasure.

37

Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET)

Also known as cognitive training, treatment that seeks to improve basic cognitive functions such as verbal learning ability in people with schiz, meanwhile reducing symptoms as well.

38

Asocialty

A negative symptom of schizophrenia marked by an inability to form close relationships and to feel intimacy.

39

Dopamine therapy

The view that schizophrenia is linked to an increase in the number of dopamine receptors.

40

Avolition

A negative symptom in schiz in which the individual lacks interest and drive.

41

Negative symptoms

Behavioural deficits in schizophrenia which include flat affect, anhedonia, a socialty, Alogia, and avolition.

42

Ideas of reference

Delusional thinking that reads personal significance into seemingly trivial remarks or activities of others and completely unrelated events.

43

Antipsychotic drugs

Psychoactive drugs such as Thorazine that reduce psychotic symptoms but have long term side effects resembling symptoms of neurological diseases.

44

Schizophrenia

A disorder characterised by disturbances in thought, emotion, and behaviour ... Disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related, delusional beliefs, faulty perception, such as hallucinations, disturbances in attention, disturbances in motor activity, blunted expression of emotion, reduced desire for interpersonal relations, and withdrawal from people, diminished motivation and anticipatory pleasure.

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