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YEAR 3 SEMESTER 1 NEURO-ANATOMY > Week 1 - finished > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 - finished Deck (71)
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1

What is the CNS made up of?

The brain, brainstem and Spinal cord

2

What are the 6 main regions of the CNS?

Spinal cord
Medulla
Pons and cerebellum
Mesencephalon
Diencephalon
2 cerebral hemispheres

3

What is the PNS made up of?

Cranial nerves
Peripheral nerves

And the ganglia of these 2

4

What can the PNS be divided into? What are the components of these divisions?

Somatic - motor and sensory components

Autonomic - sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric components

5

What parts make up the diencephalon?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalamis
Pineal gland

6

What parts make up the brainstem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

7

What is another name for the midbrain?

The mesencephalon

8

What are the 4 main region of the brain and what is a brief overview of each of their functions?

Cerebrum: 2 cerebral hemisphere.
- Conscious perception and integration of sensory information

Diencephalon: Contains the:
- Thalamus = The thalamus conveys information to the cerebral hemispheres via thalamic nuclei specific to cortical areas.
- Hypothalamus = The hypothalamus works to maintain homeostasis through the integration of the functions of the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland which releases endocrine hormones.
- Also contains:
●pineal gland
●habenula node
●neurohypophysis & pituitary stalk
●optic n. & tract
●subthalamic nucleus.

Cerebellum: The primary function of the cerebellum is coordination of movement and balance, it compares the intended or planned event with the event which is actually taking place.

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Controls basic life giving functions such as heart beat and respiration.
Controls head & neck movement to maintain balance & collect sensory info.
Transmits neural info between the spinal cord & supraspinal structures.

9

What is the core of the brainstem known as?

The reticular formation

10

What is the function of the reticular formation?

The RF it is important in integrating the actions of the entire brainstem and cerebrum to maintain arousal.

11

Where do each of the cranial nerves arise from the CNS?

CN I comes directly from the cerebrum

CN II arises from the diencephalon

CN’s III & IV from midbrain

CN’s V, VI, VII & VIII from pons

CN’s IX, X, XI & XII from medulla

12

The axons in the dorsal root of a spinal nerve only transmit what kind of information?

Sensory

13

The axons in the ventral root of a spinal nerve only transmit what kind of information?

Motor

14

What do the dorsal root and the central root join to form? What does this later split to form?

They form the spinal nerve. As the dorsal root is sensory and the ventral root is motor the spinal nerve now has both motor and sensory axons, as well as SNS and PSNS.

Once the spinal nerve has formed it splits to form the ventral and dorsal rami of the spinal nerve. These rami go off to supply various muscles, organs and sections of skin, providing them with sensory and motor innervation.

15

What is white matter? Why is it white?

Myelinated axons. It's white because myelin sheathes are white.

16

What is grey matter?

Nerve cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals, unmyelinated axons and neuroglia

17

What colour is the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres?

Grey

18

What are deep clusters of grey matter in the brainstem and cerebrum called?

Nuclei

19

What are clusters of grey matter found in the PNS called?

Ganglia

20

What is the area called where the dorsal horn and the ventral horn come together in the spinal cord?

Intermediate zone

21

What does the intermediate zone in the spinal cord allow for?

It is located between the dorsal and ventral roots and allows to communication of sensory and motor information via interneurons

22

In the spinal cord, what is the arrangement of grey and white matter?

The grey matter forms an H shape in the middle, surrounded by columns of white matter around the outside.

The H is made of ventral and dorsal horns which exit the spinal cord to before ventral and dorsal roots, ventral roots transmitting motor information and dorsal roots transmitting sensory information.

These grey ventral and dorsal horns meet in the middle to form the intermediate zone, which is the area where sensory and motor information is intergrated. This forms the basis for our reflexes.

23

What are the names of the columns of white matter in the spinal cord?

Ventral dorsal and lateral

24

What separates the right and left ventral columns?

The ventral median fissure

25

What separates the left and right dorsal columns?

The dorsal median sulcus

26

Where do the lateral columns of the spinal cord lie?

Between the ventral and dorsal rami laterally

27

What are the 4 divisions of the cerebral hemispheres? What are they named from?

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal

Named by the skull bones that they lie beneath

28

What separates the frontal and parietal lobes?

The central sulcus

29

What separates the parietal and temporal lobes?

The lateral sulcus

30

What separates the parietal and occipital lobes?

The parieto-occipital sulcus