Week 8b - cerebellum - finished Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 8b - cerebellum - finished Deck (21)
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Does the cerebellum have many neurons?

It has as many neurons as the rest of the CNS combined


What does cerebellar damage lead to?

Equilibrium and postural abnormalities and the incoordination of voluntary movements.


On the superior surface of the cerebellum, what lobes can we see?

The anterior and middle lobes


What are folia?

Small indentations or cortical ridges which cover the entire cerebellar surface


What does the primary fissure divide the cerebellum into?

Anterior and posterior lobes


What does the posterolateral fissure separate within the cerebellum?

Separates the flocculonodular lobe from the much larger body of the cerebellum and is so deep that the flocculus is almost pinched off from the rest of the cerebellum


What are the general functions of the cerebellum?

The cerebellum receives corollary discharge from brain structures functional in motor programming & execution
motor plans & the sensory information they were based on

It receives inputs from descending motor pathways to monitor descending control signals

It receives peripheral sensory feedback during the movement

In the cerebellar cortex this information is compared

When the motor plan fails to match the current sensory feedback, error signals are sent via a set of deep cerebellar nuclei, to the many areas involved in planning & execution

Cerebellar projections target the descending motor pathways to superimpose control and correct any discrepancy between the intention and the actual

Cerebellar projections also feed back to the cerebral cortical areas functional in the planning and execution of movements to realign any upcoming motor plans with the events that are actually taking place

Although the cerebellum is involved in extensive sensory processing, it is considered part of the motor system.
Cerebellar damage typically results in dysfunction of posture & balance and poor coordination of voluntary movement.
It does not generally produce sensory symptoms.


What are the 3 functional regions of the cerebellum?



- vermis (central region)
- intermediate zone (lateral portions)


What is the function of the vestibulocerebellum?
Where does it receive input from?
Where does it output to?

The vestibulocerebellum acts in the control of balance and eye movements and as such lesions in this portion of the cerebellum give rise to nystagmus and ataxia with a wide based stance.

The vestibulocerebellar cortex receives input from the vestibulocerebellar tract and outputs to the vestibular nuclei (primarily the lateral vestibular nucleus), as with all other regions the information for comparison comes from the inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla.


What is the function of the spinocerebellum?
What do the different regions of the spinocerebellar do? What do lesions in this region result in?
Where does it receive input from and where does it output to?

The spinocerebellum adjusts on going movements and regulates muscle tone via gamma motor neuron output to muscle spindles. As the spinocerebellum functions in muscle tone, lesions in this portion of the cerebellum lead to hypotonia.

The vermis acts to regulate axial and proximal limb musculature by superimposing control over the medial descending motor pathways. Lesions of the vermis give rise to ataxic gait, disturbances in truncal control and difficulty with articulation.

The intermediate zone regulates distal limb musculature by superimposing control over the lateral descending motor pathways. Lesions of the intermediate zone give ipsilateral limb ataxia and action tremor.

The spinocerebellum receives inputs from the spinocerebellar tracts and outputs to the descending motor pathways of the spinal cord via the deep cerebellar nuclei, the vermis functions via the fastigial nucleus while the intermediate zone functions via the interposed (globose and emboliform) nuclei.


What is the function of the cerebrocerebellum?
What do lesions in this region result in?
Where does it receive input from and where does it output to?

The cerebrocerebellum plays a role in the co-ordination of motor planning, rapid movements and fine dexterity; this includes the trajectory, speed and force of movements. Rather than directly altering the motor commands of the descending pathways by superimposing control over them, the cerebrocerebellum influences motor commands primarily via its action over the areas of the cerebral cortex which give rise to these descending pathways.

Lesions of this region give rise to:
initiation and termination delays
termination tremor
spatial inco-ordination of hand and finger movements
disorders of temporal or time related coordination of movements

The cerebrocerebellum receives its input from the cerebropontinecerebellar and oliverocerebellar tracts and outputs to the cerebral cortex via the dentate nucleus and VLo of the thalamus.


What is the inferior olivary nucleus? Where is it located?

A large convoluted nucleus located in the anterolateral medulla. It gives a basis for comparison.


Where does the inferior olivary nucleus receive input from?

Receives input from primary motor & somatosensory cortex, red nucleus, spinocerebellar tracts and visual cortex


Where does the inferior olivary nucleus output to?

The entire cerebellar cortex


What are the 2 different zones of the spinocerebellum

The vermis and the intermediate zone


What is the corticopontine-cerebellar input

Its is information from the cortex to the cerebellum relayed via the pontine nuclei


Does the corticopontine-cerebellar input receive sensory or motor info?

Both sensory and motor


Which side of the brain does the corticopontine-cerebellar input receive info from?

Contralateral side


What does the corticopontine-cerebellar input relate to in terms of function?

Current plans being executed
Errors that were determined to exist with these plans
Future plans being contructed


How many cerebellar peduncles are there and what are they called>




What are the inputs of the 3 cerebellar peduncles?

Complex spinocerebellar tracts
Corticopontine cerebellar tract
Outputs to the descending motor tracts

Corticopontine cerebellar tract

Simple spinocerebellar tracts
Olivarocerebellar tract
Vestibulocerebellar tract
Outputs to the descending motor tracts