Week 1: Lectures 1-6 Flashcards Preview

BM1011 Physiological Systems > Week 1: Lectures 1-6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1: Lectures 1-6 Deck (37):
1

What organs are part of the nervous system and name their function

Brain, Spinal cord, sensory organs,nerves. To conduct electrical signals, detect stimuli, process stimuli, stimulate response.

2

What organs are part of the endocrine system and name their function

Endocrine glands. To transmit chemical signals (hormones) into blood, regulate body function

3

What organs are part of circulatory system and name their function

heart, blood vessels. To transport blood around the body

4

What organs are part of the lymphatic system and name their function

lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen thymus, bone marrow. To transport lymph around the body and immunity

5

What organs are part of the skeletal system and name their function

bones (source of red blood cells). To provide structural support and protection, production of red blood cells.

6

What organs are part of integumentary system and name their function

skin. to separate body from external environment, protection, stimulus, synthesis, dynamic organ

7

What organs are part of the muscular system and name their function

Muscles, involuntary movement of muscles

8

What organs are part of the respiratory system and name their function

Lungs, airways. Gas exchange between the body and environment

9

What organs are part of the digestive system and name their function

mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas. To digest and absorb nutrients and regulation of nutrients in the body to excrete waste

10

What organs are part of the digestive system/urinary system and name their function

kidney, urethra, bladder, ureter. To filter blood, regulate electrolytes and remove nitrogenous waste

11

What organs are part of the reproductive system and what are their functions

Mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, penis, testes, accessory glands, ducts. To reproduce viable offspring

12

Name the 5 key elements in the body

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphorus

13

Name the two types of bonding and the difference between them

Covalent and Ionic bonding. Covalent is sharing electrons and ionic is losing or gaining electrons

14

Define a polar molecule

A molecule that has a slightly positive charge at one end and a slightly negative charge at the other. If it is polar it can mix with water.

15

Define Lipids

Macromolecules, mostly of carbon and Hydrogen, Electrons are shared evenly therefore non-polar. Form the outside layer of cells(plasma membrane)

16

Define a plasma membrane

The outside lining of a cell that protects the cell from its surroundings. Nothing crosses it unless its non-polar and therefore needs proteins

17

What are the features of plasma membrane

They have two layers of phospholipids. Phosphate attached to the polar end of the lipid

18

What are proteins and what are they made of

Complex macromolecules made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. They are made from amino acids. Can be non-polar or polar.

19

Features of a membrane protein

non-polar, allows molecules to cross membrane, insoluble, sits in membrane

20

Features of carbohydrates and why they are needed

Carbohydrates are needed to create energy from the breaking down on bonds. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. Polar, regenerate ATP. If aerobic CO2 is formed , if anaerobic lactate is formed

21

Define Ions and state their features

Molecules which have lost or gained electrons. Cation is positive charge and anion is negative. Can dissolve in water, micronutrients, concentration measured in moles, polar

22

What is Avogadro's number

1 mole= 6.022x10^23 molecules

23

Name the 4 key ions and their charge

Sodium(+), Chloride (-), Potassium (+), Phosphate (-)

24

What ions are inside the cell

Potassium and phosphate

25

what ions are outside the cell

Sodium and Chloride

26

Features of acid

H+ releases H+ ions and bases binds H+. Measured on pH scale, pH7 is neutral. Less than 7 acidic, more than 7 is basic

27

What are buffers

They keep cells at a neutral pH by using weak acids to release acid and weak bases to bind acids

28

What is the Mitochondria

'power pack', consumes oxygen and regenerates ATP, thousands in a cell

29

What is needed for transport across cell membranes

Proteins, polar molecules and plasma membrane

30

What is diffusion

movement of ions from high concentration to low concentration, no energy required

31

What does diffusion depend on

Concentrations on either side of the membrane, size of the molecule and polarity of the molecule

32

Name 6 molecules for diffusion

water, carbon dioxide and oxygen, ions, fats and glucose

33

Features of water diffusing

small, polar, needs proteins to diffuse and move through a membrane

34

Features of CO2 and O2 diffusing

Small, non polar, can cross membrane

35

Features of Ions diffusing

Small, polar, needs proteins to diffuse

36

Features of fats diffusing

large, non polar, can cross membrane and diffuse from high concentration to low concentration

37

Features of glucose diffusing

small, polar, needs proteins to diffuse