Week 1 midterm 2 Flashcards Preview

ANSC 310 > Week 1 midterm 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 midterm 2 Deck (83)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the CNS composed of?

the brain and spinal cord

2

What is the CNS primarily composed of and what are the 5 types?

glial cells
1. astrocyte
2. ependymal cells
3. microglia
4. oligodendrocytes
5. schwann cells

3

What 4 things protect the CNS?

1. glial cells
2. bone
3. connective tissue
4. cerebrospinal fluid

4

What are the 2 functions of ependymal cells?

- creates barriers between compartments
- acts as a source of neural stem cells

5

What is the function of astrocytes? (astro = star)

CNS glial cells that develop neural connections and possibly modulate synaptic activity; remove neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft, communicate to neurons through chemical messengers, maintain normal electrolyte composition of ISF in CNS, protect neurons against toxic substances and oxidative stress, protecting against neural degeneration

6

What do microglia do?

glial cells that serve as phagocytes, cleaning and removing bacteria and dead cells, as well as protecting CNS from oxidative stress by removing reactive oxygen species
- scavengers

7

cranium

bony skull that encases the brain

8

vertebrae

a spinal cord that runs through a canal surrounded by bony vertebrae

9

Meninges

3 membranes that lie between the bones and tissues of the CNS

10

What are the 3 meninges?

1. dura mater (hard mother)
2. arachnoid mater (spider mother)
3. pia mater (tender mother)

11

Dura mater

thick, outermost layer of the meninges that protects the brain and spinal cord, directly against the cranium

12

Arachnoid mater

middle layer thats a network shaped like a spider

13

Pia mater

innermost layer, delicate, directly against the brain

14

Cerebrospinal fluid

Protects the CNS by acting like a cushion and maintains a stable ISF environment
- clear watery and salty

15

Where is cerebrospinal fluid secreted into and where does it flow?

into the ventricles and flows through the subarachnoid space

16

What forms the lateral ventricles?

the first and second ventricles

17

Where does the cerebral aqueduct lead?

from the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle in the brainstem

18

Where is the third ventricle located?

in the diencephalon

19

Where is the fourth ventricle located?

in the brainstem

20

What do villi do?

the fingerlike projections of the arachnoid membrane at which cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed into the blood

21

What does the chorioid plexus do?

circulates the cerebrospinal fluid to subarachnoid space and ventricles
- picks what substrate it transports

22

What indicates infection?

When the CSF contains protein and/or blood cells (they ain't supposed to be there)

23

Concentration of K+ is _____ in the CSF

lower

24

concentration of H+ is ______ than in plasma

higher

25

Concentration of Na+ is _______ to that in blood

similar/higher

26

What is the total volume of CSF in around a 150lb animal

125-150mL

27

How much CSF does the choroid plexus produce per day and how often is it recycled?

400-500mL/day, recycled 3 times per day

28

CSF depends on what for energy?

Blood flow

29

What does the brain rely on for energy?

glucose, oxygen and in extreme cases, ketones (obtained through the metabolism of fatty acids/lipids)

30

What are capillaries?

sites of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid

31

What is lactate?

the usable form of glucose that the CNS (brain) uses for energy

32

What is the blood-brain barrier?

special anatomy of the CNS capillaries that limits exchange (selective - keeps unwanted things from the blood from crossing over into ECF of the CNS)

33

What are capillaries composed of? (x2)

endothelial cells and pores

34

What kinda molecules move freely across capillary walls?

small molecules

35

What kinda molecules diffuse across the walls of capillaries?

hydrophobic molecules

36

What kinda molecules diffuse through pores in capillary walls?

hydrophilic molecules

37

What kinda molecules are actively transported across capillary walls?

cells and proteins

38

What are tight junctions?

gaps between cells that regulate the blood brain barrier

39

What is white matter, how much of the CNS does it compose and what is located there?
- also what makes it white?

- 60% of the CNS
- where myelinated axons (thats what makes it white) and oligodendrocytes are found

40

What is gray matter, how much of the CNS does it compose and what is located there?

- site of synaptic communication and neural integration
- 40% of the CNS
- composed of neurons

41

What are projection fibers?

they connect the cerebral cortex with the lower levels of the brain or spinal cord (CNS) (connect top with bottom on both hemispheres)

42

What are association fibers?

they connect 2 areas of the cerebral cortex on the same side of the brain (connect the same things on either hemisphere of the brain)

43

What are commissural fibers?

they connect the same cortical regions on 2 sides of the brain (connect both hemispheres of the brain together)

44

What is the corpus callosum?

the primary location of commissural fibers

45

How does the spinal cord allow for locomotion and what is it known for?

it has neural networks -- is the major communication pathway between the brain and joints, skin and muscles

46

In what area would you perform a spinal tap aka lumbar puncture?

Sacral part of the spinal cord -- 5 pairs of nerves (lower end)

47

Where would you place an epidural in a sheep?

The cauda equina -- middle space (dark brown)

48

Where is the dorsal region and what is it responsible for?

- gray matter
- sensory functions
- afferent

49

Where is the ventral region and what is it responsible for?

- gray matter
- motor functions
- efferent

50

What does white matter form?

ascending and descending tracts that connect the spinal cord with the cerebral cortex

51

What is in the cerebrum and where is it located?

- contains gray and white matter
- consists of the cerebral cortex and the basal nuclei
- c shaped

52

What is the cerebellum?

aka 'little brain'; consists of the outer cortex and inner nuclei. bilaterally symmetrical, responsible for motor coordination/balance, coordination of eye and body movements memory

53

What is the brainstem and what does it consist of and what does it connect to what?

consists of nuclei that regulate various functions
- midbrain, pons and medulla
- connects the forebrain and cerebellum to the spinal cord

54

What is the midbrain responsible for?

Eye movement

55

What are the pons responsible for?

- relay station for info between cerebellum and cerebrum
- coordinates control of breathing with the medulla

56

What is the medulla responsible for? (nuclei)

- coordinates control of breathing with the pons
- also controls blood pressure, swallowing and vomiting

57

Where are the processing centers for the 12 types of nerves?

10 of them in the brainstem, then the olfactory and optic emerge directly from the cerebrum

58

What do cranial nerves carry?

sensory and motor info for the head and neck

59

What is the gyri/gyrus?

a ridge on the cerebral cortex

60

What is the sulci/sulcus?

a groove on the surface of the brain

61

What is a lobe?

a part of the cerebrum of the brain (x4)

62

What is the cerebral cortex?

a thin layer of gray matter on the outermost portion of the cerebrum -- performs the highest level of neural processing
ie. perception of environment, formulate ideas (humans) and actions (animals), memory, skeletal muscle movement, processing of sensory info

63

How many layers does the cortex have?

6 layers of cells

64

What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?

1. frontal aka reasoning, planning, speech, movement, emotions, etc.
2. parietal aka sensory
3. occipital aka visual
4. temporal aka auditory

65

Where is the primary motor cortex?

frontal lobe

66

Where is the primary somatosensory cortex located?

the parietal lobe

67

What does the central sulcus do?

separates frontal and parietal lobes

68

What is the primary somatosensory cortex responsible for?

where messages from the sense receptors are registered

69

What is wernickes area and where is it?

language comprehension in the posterior superior temporal lobe

70

What occurs in the auditory association areas and where is it?

located in the temporal lobe, where meaningless sounds are transformed into recognisable auditory information.

71

What occurs in the primary auditory complex and where is it?

located in the temporal lobe, responsible for hearing

72

What occurs in the limbic association cortex and where is it?

mostly on inner and bottom surface of temporal lobe; motivation and emotion; memory

73

What occurs in the olfactory cortex and where is it?

- sense of smell
located on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe

74

What is broca's area and where is it?

production of speech - an area, usually in the left frontal lobe (cortex of the frontal lobe)

75

What is the prefrontal association areas job?

idea and plan for voluntary movement, thoughts and personality

76

What is the premotor cortex and where is it?

Frontal cortex, coordinates voluntary movements

77

What is the basal nuclei?

islands of gray matter buried within the white matter responsible for inhibition of unwanted movements, selection of purposeful movements, and postural support

78

What is the globus pallidus?

component of the subcortical nuclei that connects to the thalamus which relays information to the motor areas and the prefrontal cortex

79

What is the caudate?

component of the subcortical nuclei; the tail-like structure that is part of the striatum

80

What is the putamen?

large subcortical structure, part of the subcortical nuclei - located in the cerebrum

81

What is the claustrum?

component of the subcortical nuclei; processes visual information at a subconscious level

82

Where is the diencephalon and what is it composed of?

lies between brain stem and cerebrum; composed of thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary, and pineal gland

83

What is the function of the thalamus?

relay station; almost all sensory information from lower parts of the CNS passes through it, also serves as an integrating center by modifying information passing through it