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Flashcards in Week 4 midterm 2 Deck (129)
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1

What causes muscle contractions?

Myosin and actin

2

What is the main structure for contraction?

sarcomeres (fundamental unit of myofibrils)

3

What are fascia?

connective tissue that covers muscle

4

Where is the epimysium located?

it surrounds groups of fascicles

5

Where is the perimysium located?

Surrounds individual fascicles

6

What are fascicles?

they hold muscle fibers (discrete bundle of muscle cells)

7

Where is endomysium?

It separates individual muscle fibers

8

What is the sarcolemma?

the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

9

What are muscle fascicles?

bundles of muscle tissue held together by connective tissue

10

What are muscle fibers composed of? (x4)

myofibrils (muscle fibre contractile strucutres), sarcoplasmic reticulum (aka smooth ER, stores and sequesters calcium), t tubules and mitochondria (E)

11

What are t tubules?

tubular infoldings of the sarcolemma which penetrate through muscle cells and emerge on the other side
-associate with the ends of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

12

What composes the triad?

2 lateral sacs and the t tubule

13

What gives skeletal and cardiac muscles striations and what are striations composed of?

myofibrils -- due to thick and thin filaments which run parallel to the long axis

14

What creates thick and thin filaments?

thick: myosin
thin: actin
- both contractile proteins

15

What are tropomyosin and troponin and what do they do?

regulatory proteins that regulate muscle cells

16

What are titin and nebulin and what do they do

they are accessory proteins and they anchor myosin and actin into the sarcomere

17

What are transverse tubules?

a system of tubules that provides channels for ion flow throughout the muscle fibers to facilitate the propagation of an action potential.

18

What is the H zone and what is it composed of?

H = helles = the clear band (within the A band) -- made up of myosin, gets shorts during muscle contraction

19

What is the A band?

A = anisotropic = darkest coloured band (length stays the same) -- contains myosin

20

What is the I band?

I = isotropic = lightest coloured band (length decreases) -- contains actin

21

What is actin and what is the binding site for?

a contractile protein with a binding site for myosin

22

What regulates skeletal muscle contraction?

calcium binding to troponin

23

What is the Z line?

the line formed by the attachment of actin filaments between two sarcomeres of a muscle fiber in striated muscle cells (links thin filaments)

24

What is the M line?

supporting proteins that hold the thick filaments together in the H zone. myosin tail is toward this (links thick filaments)

25

What is the hinge region?

it enables the myosin head to move (thick filament where the length decreases)

26

What is g actin (globular)?

a globular subunit of F actin with an active site for binding a myosin head

27

What is f actin (filament)?

linear polymer of G actin units (G actin is single globular unit)

28

What is TnT?

a component of troponin that binds and attaches to tropomyosin

29

What is TnI?

a component of troponin that attaches to actin and inhibits binding with myosin

30

What is TnC?

a component of troponin that binds to calcium ions (reversibly)

31

What are cross bridges

aka myosin heads, they bridge the gap between thin and thick filaments

32

What is titin?

a long and elastic accessory protein that anchors thick filaments between the M and Z line, also provides structural support and elasticity

33

What is nebulin?

a protein that lies along the thin filament that attaches to a Z line but not the M line -- regulates thin filament length during sarcomere assembly

34

What is the sliding filament theory?

a theory that actin filaments slide toward each other during muscle contraction, while the myosin filaments are still; neither thick/thin filaments shorten, filaments slide past each other

35

What is the cross bridge cycle?

a cyclical formation and breaking of cool bridges (how muscles generate force)

36

What is excitation contraction coupling?

how muscle contractions are turned on and off -- a sequence of events when an AP in the sarcolemma causes contraction (requires calcium release)

37

What are sarcomeres?

a functional unit of muscle, spans from Z line to Z line and shortens during contraction (composed of actin and myosin)

38

What shortens during contraction?

I band, H zone and sarcomeres

39

What is rigor mortis and what causes it?

stiffness of the body that sets in several hours after death; occurs due to myosin heads being frozen in their 90 degree position

40

What happens in high energy form for myosin heads?

its at 90 degrees, ADP and Pi are bound to myosin and it has a high affinity for actin

41

What happens in low energy form for myosin heads?

its at 45 degrees, ADP is bound to myosin and it has a low affinity for actin

42

What is a power stroke for myosin heads?

movement of the myosin head that pushes the thin filament toward the center of the muscle, after which thick + thin filaments detach and the myosin head returns to its initial potential

43

What role does calcium play in contraction?

it binds to troponin, causing movement of troponin, causing movement of tropomyosin, exposing binding sites for myosin on actin

44

What opens calcium channels and where?

DHP receptors of t tubules in lateral sacs of sarcolemma

45

What is the heart?

a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

46

What does the cardiovascular system transport (x3)?

1. O2 from nutrients to cells
2. removes waste from tissues to liver and kidney (Co2 and urea)
3. hormones, immune cells and clotting proteins to their specific target cells

47

What are blood vessels?

tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body

48

What is blood?

a connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma where red and white blood cells, and platelets (cell fragments) are suspended

49

What are the 2 valves?

atrioventricular and semilunar

50

How many chambers does the heart have?

4

51

What is the inter ventricular septum?

it separates ventricles

52

Which way does the electrical signal flow through the heart?

from the apex to the base

53

What is the strucuture of the cardiovascular system called?

vasculature

54

What is the order blood flows in the heart?

heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules then veins

55

What are arteries?

large, branching vessels that conduct blood away from the heart

56

What are arterioles?

small branching vessels that conduct blood away from the heart?

57

What are capillaries?

sites of exchange between blood and tissue

58

What are venules?

small converging vessels

59

What are veins?

large converging vessels that conduct blood to the heart

60

What kinda system is the cardiovascular system?

a closed system

61

What are erythrocytes?

red blood cells that transport oxygen and CO2`

62

What are leukocytes?

white blood cells that defend the body against pathogens

63

What are platelets?

cell fragments that are important in blood clotting

64

What is plasma?

the fluid part of blood (water) + solutes (ex. carbs, minerals, lipids, vitamins, etc.)

65

What are the 2 ways the blood circulates?

1. series flow through the cardiovascular system
2. parallel flow within the systemic or pulmonary circuit

66

What is the pulmonary circuit?

- supplied by the right heart
- blood vessels from the heart to the lungs and lungs to the heart

67

What is the systemic circuit?

- supplied by the left heart
- blood vessels from the heart to systemic tissues and tissues to the heart

68

What colour is oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?

oxy: red
deoxy: blue

69

How does blood becomes oxygenated?

When it passes through the lungs, oxygen diffuses through the tissues into the blood

70

Why is parallel blood flow great?

it allows for independent regulation of blood flow to organs

71

Where does the right atrium receive blood from (x2)?

venae cavae and coronary sinus

72

What is the right atrioventricular valve?

aka the tricuspid valve, blood leaving the R atrium flows into the L ventricle through it

73

What does the right ventricle do?

pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs

74

What does the left atrium do?

receives oxygenated blood from the lungs

75

What does the left atrioventricular valve do?

(mitral or bicuspid valve) Blood leaving the left atrium flows into the left ventricle through this valve; most commonly replaced due to more pressure on left side of the heart

76

What does the left ventricle do?

pumps oxygenated blood to the body

77

What does the aorta do?

the large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body

78

What is the pulmonary semilunar valve?

the heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery

79

What is the aortic semilunar valve?

the valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta

80

Where is the heart located?

in the thoracic cavity

81

What is the phragmdia?

it separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity

82

What is the pericardium?

a membranous sac that surrounds the heart and lubricates it to decrease friction

83

What is pericarditis?

inflammation of the pericardium in cows that swallow nails

84

What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?

1. endocardium (inner)
2. myocardium (middle)
3. epicardium (outer)

85

What is the endocardium?

inner layer of the heart wall, composed of endothelial cells

86

What is the myocardium?

the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle

87

What is the epicardium?

the outer layer of the heart wall, external membrane

88

Which ventricle is thicker and why?

the left as it pumps bloods to the longer systemic circuit

89

What are intercalated disks?

structures that connect cardiac muscle cells to each other

90

What do gap junctions do?

they cause the heart to contract as a unit

91

What are desmosomes?

tough connective tissue that resist stress in the heart muscles

92

What does the fibrous skeleton do? (x2)

separates atria and ventricles and anchors the heart valves

93

What does an aerobic muscle mean?

that it uses oxygen to generate ATP

94

What type of growth occurs after infancy?

hypertrophy (increase in cell size, not number)

95

What are the majority of cardiac muscles? And what is the other tiny bit?

majority: contractile
minority (1%): autorhythmic cells (self generate APs)

96

What cells set the rate of heart beat?

autorhythmic cells

97

What generates heart pumping action?

rhythmic contraction and relaxation

98

What pushes blood out of the heart and into the vasculature?

contractions

99

When does the heart fill with blood?

during relaxation

100

What is a heartbeat?

a wave of contraction through cardiac muscled

101

What is the flow of blood and what drives it?

atria to ventricles to arteries, driven by pressure difference

102

What opens valves?

they open passively due to the pressure gradient (no going backwards only forwards)

103

What do the papillary muscles and chordae tendinae do together?

they keep the AV valves from turning outwards

104

What are the semilunar valves?

aortic and pulmonary

105

What is autorhythmicity?

the hearts ability to generate its own rhythm

106

What are autorhythmic cells? and what are the 2 types?

set the rate of the heartbeat -- pacemaker cells and conduction fibers

107

What are pacemaker cells?

spontaneously depolarizing membrane potentials to generate APs -- coordinate and provide rhythm to the heartbeat (fastest cells) -- never rest so their potential is called "pacemaker potential" rather than resting potential

108

What are conduction fibers

they rapidly conduct APs initiated by pacemaker cells to the myocardium (faster than regular muscle fibers)

109

What is the sinoatrial node?

the pacemaker of the the heart

110

What is the atrioventricular node?

a specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart

111

What are internodal pathways?

specialized conductile cells within the atria that transmit the impulse from the SA node throughout the myocardial cells of the atrium and to the AV node

112

What is the bundle of His?

a conduction fiber of the myocardium, modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract

113

What are bundle branches?

branches of the AV bundle that divide to the right and left sides of the interventricular septum

114

What are purkinje fibers?

fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract

115

What links cardiac cells and why?

gap junctions, used for electrical coupling

116

What are intercalated disks?

junctions between adjacent myocardial cells (for electrical coupling)

117

What are the steps of the interatrial pathway?

from sinoatrial node - to right atrium - to left atrium (rapidly) causing simultaneous contraction of the right and left atria

118

What is the internodal pathway?

the spread of excitation from sinoatrial node to the atrioventricular node

119

What is the AV node transmission pathway?

the only pathway from atria to ventricles, slow conduction where atria contract before ventricles do

120

What is ventricular excitation?

the spread of excitation down the bundle of His, right and left bundle branches and up the purkinje fibers

121

What causes spontatnous depolarization/

closing of K channels and opening of If (funny) and Ca (t-type) channels (sodium is greater than potassium)

122

What are L type channels

fast calcium channels that generate an action potential in pacemaker cells by depolarizing it to the threshold

123

What is the resting membrane potential of a contractile (myocardial cell)

-90mv

124

What do cardiac cells and skeletal muscle have in common?

sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium, T tubules, troponin-tropomyosin regulation

125

What do cardiac cells and smooth muscle have in common?

extracelular calcium and gap junctions

126

How does cardiac muscle relaxation occur?

through the removal of calcium from the cytosol

127

What is calcium ATPase?

pumps for the removal of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane

128

What is the sodium-calcium exchanger?

pumps that remove calcium from the cytosol that are present in the plasma membrane

129

What do troponin and tropomyosin cover?

myosin binding sites