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Flashcards in week 12 Deck (21):
1

How many foot arches are there and what are they?

There are three foot arches, there are 2 longitudinal (lateral and medial) arches and 1 transverse

2

How many foot bones are there and what are they called?

there are nine, these are
Calacaneus
Talus
Cuboid
Navicular
Cuneiforms
Metatarsals
Phalanges
2 sesamoid bones

3

What are the two parts of the foot?

The hind and the midfoot *important to know

4

Which bone forms both longitudinal arches?

The calcaneus

5

what bones make up the transverse arch of the foot?

The 3 cuneiforms, the cuboid and the base of the metatarsals

6

What are the main functions of the fibula?

Muscle attachment site
Bone required for the formation of the ankle joint

7

Which part of the calcaneus is the most weight bearing?

The medial tubercle

8

Where to the two sesamoid bones of the foot sit and where are they found?

Inferior to the first metatarsal, within the tendon of flexor hallucis brevis

9

What support the arches of the foot?

The plantar ligaments (Short and long plantar ligamaments and the spring ligament)
The plantar aponeurosis/fascia
Actions of the instrinsic muscle
contraction of long muscle (FHL, TA and the fibularis muscles

10

What are the three parts of fascia on the plantar aspect of the foot?

The medial, lateral and central aspects. The three make up the plantar fascia

11

What is the medial longitudinal arch made up of and what supports it?

are composed of the calcaneus, talus, navicular, three cuneiforms and three metatarsals. it is supported by TA, TP, FL and the spring ligament

12

What is the lateral longitudinal arch made up of and what supports it?

It is made up f the calcaneus, cuboid, and 4th and 5th metatarsals. It is supported by the long and short plantar ligaments and FL and FB

13

What is the transverse arch made up of and what supports it?

It is made up of the three cuneiforms, cuboid and the bases of the metatarsals. it is supported by FL and TP

14

What muscle supports all three arches of the foot?

Fibularis longus

15

What are the two variations in foot arches?

Pes plantar (flat feet)
Pes Cavus (abnormally high arches)

16

What is your line of gravity?

The imaginary line that extends from the centre of gravity to the base

17

What are the two phases of Gait?

The stance phase and the swing phase

18

what are the phases of the gait cycle

Heel strike
Loading response/flat foot
Midstance
Terminal stance/ heel off
Preswing/ toe off
Swing phase

19

What is the Q angle?

The angle between the femur and the tibia at the knee, it is made up from a line from the ASIS to the mid patella and the mid patealla to the tibial tuberosity. The angle is greater in girls (18) as they have a wider pelvis whereas males are around 13 degrees

20

What is the angle of inclination?

It is the angle that runs through the head and neck of the femur along with the shaft of the femur. it is around 115-140 degrees. Less in females due to wider pelvis

21

What is a myotome?

A muscle or group of muscles innervated by a single spinal nerve