Flashcards in Week 12 Chapter 10 Substance Use Disorders Tobacco & Marijuana (Caff) Deck (11):
How can Tobacco be used?
Tobacco can be smoked, chewed, ground into small pieces & inhaled as snuff
How many deaths in the USA is cigarette smoking said to be responsible for?
*Tobacco is thought to be responsible for 1 in every 6 deaths in the US and is the single most preventable cause of premature death in the US and other parts of the world.
What are some of the health conditions tobacco contribute to?
*cancers of the larynx, oesophagus, pancreas, bladder, cervix, & stomach,
*complications in pregnancy, SiDS,
Why is tobacco so harmful?
The most probable harmful components in the smoke from burning tobacco are:
*and tar, which consist primarily of certain hydrocarbons, many of which are known carcinogens
What are some of the health consequences of breathing second hand (or passive) smoke?
Non-smokers can suffer:
*Lung damage including precancerous lung abnormalities
*Cardiovascular disease, lung cancer
*Babies born to women exposed to second-hand smoke are more likely to be born prematurely, have lower birth rates, & to have birth defects
*Children of smokers are more likely to have upper respiratory infections, asthma, bronchitis, & inner ear infections.
*SiDS (sudden infant death syndrome) is also more likely
What is Marijuana made from and how can Marijuana be used?
Marijuana consists of the dried and crushed leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The major chemical in marijuana is THC.
*It is most often smoked, but it may be chewed, prepared as tea, or eaten in baked goods.
*Hashish is much stronger than marijuana and is produced by removing and drying the resin exudate of the tops of cannabis plants.
*Hemp was originally grown for its fibres used in the manufacturing of clothing & rope.
*By 19th century cannabis was known for it's medicinal qualities & was used for treatment of rheumatism, gout, depression, cholera, & neuralgia
*It was also smoked for pleasure
Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance. What are some of the psychological effects of marijuana?
Effects of marijuana depend on the potency and size of the dose
Some of the Psychological effects:
*relaxed & sociable; *rapid emotional shifts
*dull attention; *Fragment thoughts; *Impair memory
*give the sense time is moving slowly
Extreme heavy users: extreme panic
*Impair cognitive functioning & psychomotor skills such as driving
*It is not known whether marijuana use impairs intellectual functioning.
What are some of the physical effects of marijuana?
Short term physical consequences:
*bloodshot & itchy eyes; dry mouth & throat; increased appetite; raised blood pressure
Long term physical consequences:
*1 'marijuana cigarette' is the equivalent of 5 tobacco cigarettes in CO2; 4 cigarettes for tar & 10 for damage to the airways
How does marijuana affect the brain?
There are 2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain: CB1 & CB2
CB1 receptors are found throughout the body & brain - large No. in hippocampus (learning & memory) as a result short term memory problems have been associated with cannabis use
Cannabis use results in:
*increased blood flow to the amygdala & the anterior cingulate (emotion regions)
*Decreased blood flow to temporal lobe (associated with auditory attention - leads to poor performance on listening tasks
Is marijuana thought to be addictive?
Research has shown that habitual use does produce tolerance
It is less clear whether long-term users experience withdrawal however, symptoms of restlessness, anxiety, tension, stomach pains, & insomnia do occur.