Week 12 Chapter 10 Substance Use Disorders Opiates (Caff) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 12 Chapter 10 Substance Use Disorders Opiates (Caff) Deck (10)
1

What are Opiates?

*Opiates are considered sedatives
*Opiates are a group of addictive drugs that in moderate doses relieve pain and induce sleep
*The Opiates include opium, & it's derivatives: Morphine, heroin, codeine

2

Tell me about Opium

Opium has been used since 7000BC and comes from the opium poppy and was the principle drug of international traffic

3

Tell me about Morphine

In 1806 the alkaloid Morphine (named after Morpheus, the Greek god of Dreams) was separated from raw opium.
*This bitter tasting powder is a powerful sedative & pain reliever. Since middle of 19th century it has been commonly injected into the veins for pain relief
*It is highly addicitive

4

Tell me about Heroin

In 1874 Morphine was converted into Heroin, another powerful pain reliever.
Heroin was initially used to cure morphine addiction & was so widely used in so many drugs it was known as 'God's own medicine' prior to it being found to be more addictive than Morphine
*Heroin is mostly injected, though sometimes chased, smoked, snorted, or swallowed

5

What is the problem with legally prescribed opiate based medications?

Hydrocodone and Oxycodone are legally prescribed opiate based medications that have become drugs of abuse
*Hydrocodone is often combined with acetaminophen (the active agent of Tylenol) to create Vicodin, Zydone & Lortab
*Oxycodone.is found in Percodan, Tylox, & OxyCoontin

6

What is the prevalence of Opiate Abuse and Dependence?

More than 1 million people are thought to be addicted to heroin in the USA
*Heroin used to be a drug for low SES, however, in 1990's it became popular with middle & upper-middle class students & professionals
*In 2009 over 5 million people in the USA used pain medications for nonmedicinal uses.
*The no. of people seeking treatment for dependence on pain medications increased 400% in just 10 years
*Because heroin is cheaper than OxyContin and has similar effects, health professionals are concerned people will turn to heroin instead

7

What is the Psychological & Physical effects of Opiate Abuse and Dependence?

Opiates produce euphoria, drowsiness and sometimes a lack of coordination.
*Heroin & OxyContin produce a 'rush' a feeling of warm, suffusing ecstasy immediately after an intravenous injection
*The user has great self confidence, & sheds worries & fears for up to 4-6 hours.
*However, the user feels a severe comedown, bordering on stupor

8

How do Opiates produce their effect?

Opiates produce their effect by stimulating neural receptors of the body's own opioid system (endorphins & enkephalins)
*Heroin is converted into morphine in the brain & binds to the opioid receptors located throughout the brain.
*The pleasurable effects may come from a link between these receptors & the dopamine system or via the opioids action in the nucleus accumbens

9

Opiates are clearly addictive. How quickly do users gain tolerances & show withdrawals?

*Withdrawal from heroin may begin up to 8 hours of the last injection once a high tolerance has built up.
During the next few hours after withdrawal begins the person experiences muscle pain, sneezing, & sweating; becomes tearful, & yawns a great deal. (a lot like flu). Within 36 hours symptoms are more severe: uncontrollable chills, muscle cramps, flushing, sweating, a rise in heart rate & blood pressure. inability to sleep, vomiting & diarrhea follow. Symptoms typically persist for about 72 hours & gradually diminish over 5-10 days

10

What are the serious possible problems facing people who abuse opiates?

In a 29 year follow up study of 500 people addicted to heroin:
28% were dead by age 40 - half by homicide, suicide, accident; one third by overdose

*Needle sharing leads to spread of infectious diseases

Social consequences:
Obtaining & using becomes the centre of the person's life, governing all activities & social relationships. Users often resort to illegal activities to obtain sufficient money for their drug

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