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Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (48):
1

Identify the five main parts of a neuron

1. Dendrites
2. Soma
3. Axon
4. Myelin Sheath
5. Terminal Buttons

2

What do dendrites do, and where are they located?

Dendrites received stimulation from sensory receptors. And they protrude from the soma

3

What does a neural impulse travel along?

the axon

4

What contains neural transmitters located at the end of an axon?

Terminal buttons

5

What is the soma?

The neuron body.

6

Where does the metabolism of a cell take place?

soma

7

What converts sugar from the bloodstream for energy?

soma

8

What are the three major classes of neurons?

1. sensory neurons
2. motor neurons
3. Interneurons

9

What class of neuron terminates on muscles and cause them to contract and relax?

Motor neurons

10

What class of neuron allows the brain to sense things such as smell, touch and hear?

Sensory neurons

11

What do interneurons do?

o From sensory neurons to other interneurons or to motor neurons. Most of the brain consists of interneurons

12

What is the one type of movement that doesn't involve the central nervous system?

Reflex arc - pain withdrawal reflex

13

Is the signal within a neuron electrical or chemical?

Electrical

14

When the axon/neuron isn't being stimulated is the signal positive or negative?

Negative

15

What makes the signal within the axon positive?

When it is stimulated

16

What is the voltage of a resting neuron?

-70 milivolts

17

What is the stimulated voltage of a neuron?

+30 milivolts

18

What is the all-or-none rule of an action potential?

the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of the stimulation beyond the threshold levels. It means that the spike is the same size no matter how stimulated the cell it.

19

What is the period during which further stimulation cannot cause another action potential, meaning that when the cell fires, there’s a rapid change, it cannot fire again until a couple of milliseconds have passes called?

The refractory period

20

T/F - At rest, a neuron is polarized with a negative charge inside the cell membrane and a positive charge outside (resting potential)

true

21

What part of a neuron stimulates an action potential?

dendrite

22

What do sodium irons flowing in to the axon achieve?

a positive charge - action potential

23

A neuron is polarized in a resting state. If it is depolarized what is it doing?

going from negative (-70) closer to positive. (neuron firing action potential)

24

What is happening when a neuron is hyperpolarized?

it's going down or remaining negative (resting state)

25

A neurotransmitter can either have an inhibitory effect, or an excitable effect on the next neuron in the neuron pathway. If it has an inhibitory effect would it be depolarized or hyperpolarized?

Hyperpolarized (inhibitory)

26

A neurotransmitter can either have an inhibitory effect, or an excitable effect on the next neuron in the neuron pathway. If it has an excitable effect would it be depolarized or hyperpolarized?

depolarized (excitable)

27

Most of the neurotransmitters are made in the ____ and are transported down the axon and into the terminal buttons.

Soma

28

_________ are chemicals that transmit information from one cell to another

Neurotransmitters

29

What is the Acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmitter?

The neurotransmitter you find at the motor-end plate It causes excitation which causes contraction of the muscle. they control the skeletal muscles and contribute to the regulation of attention, arousal and memory

30

What is the GABBA neurotransmitter?

The main inhibitory transmitter in the brain. If you have some type of excess of excitation in the brain the GABBA will inhibit them from firing.

31

What is the dopamine neurotransmitter?

Found in many locations in the brain but mostly in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain that is active when you are feeling ecstasy or pleasure. E.g drugs, sex, skydiving. Over activity in dopamine can cause schizophrenia

32

What are Norepinephrine/noradrenaline hormone and neurotransmitters?

Hormones that cause the release of adrenalin into the bloodstream as part of the autonomous nervous system – this occurs when you’re afraid and feel a spike of fear

33

What is the serotonin neurotransmitter?

found throughout the brain – the neurotransmitter of being in a good mood, feeling happy. If you lack serotonin you will be depressed and awake and maybe aggressive. Antidepressants are designed to boost serotonin. Very important as far as sleep/wake cycles are concerned.

34

What are Endorphins?

They're neurotransmitters that are Naturally occurring opiates. Goal is to get rid of the feeling of pain and are released in response to pain

35

The neurotransmitter that regulates anxiety and that is used by about one-third of all the neurons in the brain is?

GABBA

36

The membrane of a neuron at rest is:

polarised. The inside of the cell membrane has a negative electrical charge while the fluid outside the cell membrane has a positive electrical charge

37

Inhibitory neurotransmitters:
a. affect the pre-synaptic neuron.
b. facilitate transmission at the synapse.
c. increase the number of receptor sites.
d. hyperpolarise the post-synaptic neuron

D - hyperpolaize the post synaptic neuron

38

The electrical difference be
tween the inside and outside
of a resting neuron is

-70

39

Narcotics work because they are chemically very similar to what neurotransmitter?

Endorphin's

40

What are the two cerebral hemispheres connected by?

corpus callosum

41

Which neurotransmitters increase the polarization of the postsynaptic
membrane?

inhibitory

42

People with excessive levels of dopamine may experience:

schizophrenia

43

The ability to feel a wedding ring on your finger and to see the cat running through a room requires a normally functioning _______ lobe.

parietal

44

As I watch the sun rise or as I look at a painting, the _____ lobe is the most active.

Optical

45

The fact that language is located more
in the left hemisphere is an example of:

lateralisation

46

My patient is producing 'word salad'. He most likely has damage to:

Wernicke's area

47

Jamie has been described as 'left-brained'. Typically, it means he is

Logical and analytical

48

A brain-injured patient appears callous, grandiose, and boastful, and tends to make tactless comments. The area of the brain that is most probably damaged is the:

Frontal Lobe