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absorption rate

Amount of floor space that has been leased in a given period (usually annually)
Figure expressed as a %
Indicator of supply and demand in the market


vacancy rate

Total vacant space as a ratio of total market stock


gross lettable area

Measurement of the whole building area;Minus;
Elevator shafts
Stair cases
Ducts etc.


net lettable area

Measurement of the GLA area

Minus areas not available to the tenant;
Plant rooms


explain essencial safety measures

 When the construction of a building is complete, the building owner is responsible for its upkeep and maintenance, particularly its safety features or essential safety measures.
 The maintenance of essential safety measures will ensure that important safety systems within the building remain at the required operational level throughout the life of the building.
 The type of maintenance needed depends on the complexity of the safety measures, equipment of feature and the maintenance program required or expected at the time of installation.

 Aims to reduce risk to life and property in emergencies
 Legislated under Part 12 of the Building Regulations Act 2006

 Examines aspects including;
o Exit doors
o Emergency lighting
o Fire extinguishers
o Smoke alarms
o Fire hydrants


explain essential safety measures and relevance with July 1 1994

Buildings built before 1 July 1994
o If the building was built before 1 July 1994, the owner is responsible for ensuring that any safety equipment, safety fittings or safety measures are maintained and fulfilling their purpose. This includes exits and paths of travel to exits.

Buildings constructed or altered since 1 July 1994
o If the building was constructed or altered since 1 July 1994, the list of essential safety measures would be included with the occupancy permit or certificate of final inspection.
o The owners of all Class 9 buildings, and Class 2 to 8 buildings constructed or altered since 1 July 1994, must have a current copy of the building's occupancy permit on display in the building.
o These can be framed, placed in a sealed, transparent or glass covered notice board or for multiple pages, the pages may be laminated so they can be suspended or fixed in a prominent position in the building as approved by the building surveyor.

o Councils have responsibility under the Act for the enforcement of building safety within their municipality.
o The municipal building surveyor or chief officer of the relevant fire authority is responsible for the enforcement of the maintenance provisions of the Regulations.
o Building owners must prepare an annual essential safety measures report on the buildings essential safety measures.
o Issues
o Fines
o Insurance


steps in market analysis

1. Define the product
2. Market delineation
3. Demand Analysis
4. Supply Analysis
5. Analyse interaction of supply and demand
6. Capture analysis


explain define the product

o What's our objectives?
o What profit margin do we want to make?
o What's our finance levels?
o What uses are probable for the property based on the property’s physical, legal and locational attributes?
o Identification of planning, title and other elements here


exlain market delination

o Looking at the end product
o Who are the potential users or likely purchasers of your property
o You may have more then one potential idea, who is the end user for each different development alternative?


explain capture analysis

o Where is your buyer/ tenant from?
o Local area, outside area or overseas investors?
o Marketing?
o Pre sales?


barriers to sustanability

o Lack of access to capital
o Lack of knowledge and awareness around energy efficiency
o Perception that the energy efficiency investment won’t yield a return
o Lack of motivation
o Disruption to existing tenants
o Short-term thinking from owners


driver of sustainability

o Legislation
o Risk of losing government tenants
o Tenant vacancy
o Rising cost of electricity
o Equipment failure
o Funding


types of development

1. Speculative
2. Pre-commitment


purpose of development guidelines

o Aim to ensure that industrial and commercial areas are functional and attractive environments for business operators, workers, visitors and residents.
o Cover existing and future industrial and commercial when taking into consideration the local environmental.
o Landscaping, materials, colours and building forms

o Subdivision Design Guidelines
o Development Design Guidelines


subdivision guidelines key points

o Site responsive design
o Access and circulation lot layout
o Landscape and open space
o Interface treatments
o Stormwater management


explain site responsive design

o Ensure new developments are designed with the site and area in mind
o Investigation of the site and it’s context
o Surrounding existing and future land users (cultural)
o Transport networks (road, pedestrian, cycle, PT)
o Vegetation, drainage systems, view, topography – key driver
o Climate conditions – solar access, winds


explain access and circulation

o Efficient flow of transport (connected road networks)
o Limit impacts of heavy vehicles in residential locations
o B-double truck movements
o Maximize passive solar opportunities by orienting roads on a north-south and east west access
o Integrate grass areas

o Ensure pedestrian and bike access is integrated to the deign – existing trails
o Promote walking and bikes as suitable transport modes
o Adequate separate of pedestrian, cyclist movements from vehicles


explain lot layout

o Suitable size allotments that are functional and accessible
o Diversity of lot sizes the enable flexibility and a range of industrial and business uses
o Maximize passive solar design through the orientation of allotments
o Corner allotments – building frontage
o Allotments designed so they capture any views to surrounding landscape


explain landscape and open spaces

o Formal avenue planting/ clump planting
o Low level plants and grasses
o Durable and require minimal maintenance (passive irrigation using storm water)
o Street furniture – seating and binds. Open space nodes
o Street lighting
o Provision of open space – 5% or a contribution to council
o Distribute open space within subdivision
o Incorporate natural elements such as creeks or water bodies
o Locate uses such as cafes/shops adjacent to open spaces


explain interface treatements

o Managers land between industrial and business and other sensitive land uses and environmental uses
o Separation between industrial and low density residential by a 10m wide landscape buffer or open space
o Inclusion of landscaping screening and noise protection such as planting and mounding
o Larger lots to face residential interface


explain storm water management

o Ensure streets and drainage perform adequately during storm events
o Minimise any effects to receiving waters from environmental degradation
o Capture, retain, treat and re-use stormwater before it is discharged
o Minimise impervious surfaces
o Use water sensitive urban design features


development guidelines include

building design
building sitting
loading bay


explain acces and circulation - loading

o Clearly defined pedestrian cyclist entry from the foot path / shared road
o Separate movements from vehicle movements (particular loading docks)
o Provide bicycle storage, lockers and showers
o Access should comply with disability discrimination act
o Example of safe pedestrian access = zebra crossing

Access & Circulation (Loading & Servicing)
o Provide safe and efficient loading and servicing to sites
o Minimise visual impact of loading bays when viewed from the street
o Located to the rear or side of the property
o Integrate such areas to internally. If external > screening
o Ensure storage and loading areas are adequate to avoid the use of car parks


access and circulation carparking

Parking should not be a dominant element of the street scape (20 parks) – sealed/ landscaping

Safe and efficient access within the car park (truck area)

Visitor car parking/ staff parking/ disabled car parking


explain building sitting and orientation

o Set backs for infill developments should be consistent, if not then depends on size of land
o Minimise impacts of overshadowing within and on adjoining uses
o Entrance, reception etc. should be parallel with the primary street frontage
o Orientate buildings to the north/ north east aspect to maximise passive design


explain building design / form

o Building walls that are visible from the street or POS should provide visual interest.

Avoid blank walls.
o Varying building setbacks, roof forms, glazing, building materials, finishes and colours. Avoid pre-cast concrete
o Colours should be muted, earthy tones and avoid bright, bold colours that are not compatible with the local area – non reflective

Built Form – Building Heights/ Roofs
o Building heights should respond to the scale of the built form in the area – residential area
o Need to avoid overshadowing public footpaths or OPS between 11am and 2pm
o Low pitched roof forms (reduce the bulk look) & vary roof between the different building elements


explain signage

o Provides business identification
o Signage should be integrated into the design of the building and keeping in scale with the façade
o Multiple tenancies – one shared signed
o Freestanding signage is limited (building façade & directional)


development guidelines - site ammenity

o Site Amenity – Waste Storage
o Waste storage and recycling should be locate from street frontage, staff amenity and stormwater drains.
o New developments need to demonstrate methods to minimise the production of waste as well as recycling and re-use.
o Site Amenity – Goods Storage
o Should not be located within landscaped areas, driveways, car parking and vehicle turning areas
o If goods are to be accessed by customers then safe access should be provided

o Site Amenity – Lighting
o Lighting should be provided for the purpose of security and safe pedestrian access and not affect road users
o Lights should be directional, baffled or a high that prevents spillage onto adjoining properties.


types of special reports

traffic and carparking
accoustic (noise)
hydrological (flood)