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Flashcards in Week 3-TransFemoral Deck (112)
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1

What are the different amputation levels for transfemorals?

Long
Medium
Short
Very Short = Subtrochanteric

2

What are the different muscle compartments?

posterior
middle
anterior

3

What is part of the posterior muscle compartment?

Extensors of the Hip & Flexors of the Knee

4

What is part of the middle muscle compartment?

Adductors
Femoral Triangle

5

What is part of the anterior muscle compartment?

Flexors of Hip, Flexors of Knee & Extensor of Knee

6

What is part of the gluteal region?

Gluteus Maximus
Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Minimus
Tensor Fasciae Latae
6 Deep Lateral Rotators

7

What are the 6 deep lateral rotators?

piriformis,
obtorator internus/externus,
gemellus superior/inferior,
quadratus femoris

8

What are the socket design goals?

Contouring for functioning muscles
Stabilize skeletal structures
Broad pressure over neuro-vascular bundles
Forces distributed over wide area

9

What are three important aspects in the design of the quadrilateral socket?

Four well defined walls
Rectangular in shape
Ischial-gluteal weight bearing

10

What reliefs are required for the quadrilateral socket?

Hamstring tendon
Gluteus maximus
Adductor longus
Rectus femoris

11

What are three aspects important for the ischial containment socket?

Femur held in adduction
Very intimate fit
Triangular shape

12

What are the advantages of the quadrilateral socket?

Well documented
Consistent procedure for fabrication

13

What are the disadvantages of the quadrilateral socket?

Not custom shape
Femur not held in adduction
Lack of support in medial wall

14

What are the advantages of the ischial containment socket?

Enhanced biomechanical stability
Increased medial wall support
Strong gluteal and hydrostatic loading
Restoration of pelvic-femoral angle

15

What are the disadvantages of the ischial containment socket?

Too many inconsistent designs
Requires skill to fabricate

16

What are the advantages of the ischial containment socket over the quadrilateral socket/

Bony lock
Counter force-In Quad socket there is distal pressure while in ischial containment it is distributed

17

What are the different types of suspension systems for transfemorals?

Suction
Silicone Sleeve
Silesian Belt
Hip joint & pelvic band
Suspenders

18

How does suction suspension work?

Socket and interface are smaller than limb
Patient is pulled into the socket
Valve is screwed in, doesn’t let air in, only out
Positive-negative pressure pump

19

What are the indications for suction sockets?

Long limbs
Stable volume
Good skin integrity
Good upper limb strength
Majority of patients

20

What are the contraindications for suction sockets?

Patients with volume fluctuation
Short residual limbs
Severe scarring
Upper extremity involvement

21

What are the indications for silicone suction?

Longer residual limbs
Stable limb volume )can add socks)
No upper limb involvement

22

What are the contraindications for silicone suction?

Unstable limb volume
Upper limb involvement
Skin sensitivity to material

23

What are the advantages of silicone suction?

Provides positive suction suspension-can add socks
Does not limit range of motion
Reduces shear forces

24

What are the disadvantages of silicone suction?

Difficult to don-seal can pinch and create air channel
Skin reaction to material
Rotation Control-due to cylindrical shape

25

What can a Silesian belt be made of?

Webbing, cotton or TES

26

What components make up a Silesian belt?

Belt, elastic strap, neoprene belt with leg section

27

Where does the Silesian belt attach?

Attached lateral and fastened anteriorly

28

What's the difference between the true silesian and the modified silesian belt?

True has a double anterior attachment while the modified only has one

29

What are the indications for the silesian belt?

Auxiliary suspension is required
Rotational control needed
When suction cant be used
May aid in coronal control
Patient security

30

What are the contraindications for the silesian belt?

When there is no need for frontal plane control (long limbs with good strength primarily)

31

What are the advantages of the silesian belt?

Easy to don
May add coronal stability
Adjustable

32

What are the disadvantages of the silesian belt?

Increased straps and buckles
Increased bulk around waist

33

What are the five aspects of the HIP JOINT & PELVIC BAND?

Single axis joint at hip
Laminated into the socket
Pelvic band is located between the iliac crest and trochanter
Leather belt with buckle
Usually worn with socks

34

What are the indications for the HIP JOINT & PELVIC BAND?

Maximum ML control
Weak hip Abductors or short residuum
Ease of donning is important,
Previous wearers
Easy Hip Dislocation

35

What are the contraindications for the HIP JOINT & PELVIC BAND?

When not needed/indicated

36

What are the advantages for the HIP JOINT & PELVIC BAND?

Easy to don, Good swing phase control, Increased ML stability

37

What are the disadvantages for the HIP JOINT & PELVIC BAND?

Extremely bulky, Inherent pistoning, Increased weight

38

What two aspects make up the suspender suspension?

Suspension over the shoulders
May operate knee unit

39

What are the indications for suspender suspension?

Last resort
Previous wearer
Need to reduce forces around pelvis
Patient with abdominal scarring

40

What are the contraindications for suspender suspension?

Whenever anything else will do
Really bulky

41

What are the different categories for knee systems?

Outside Hinge
Constant Friction
Weight Activated
Polycentric
Manual Locking
Microprocessor Controlled

42

What are the two most important factors of knee systems?

Voluntary control
Inherent stability

43

What is the order for inherent stability from least to most with the knee systems?

Outside hinges
Single Axis – Constant Friction
Weight Activated Stance Control
Polycentric
Manual Locking

44

What is the order for voluntary control from least to most?

Manual Locking
Polycentric
Weight Activated Stance Control
Single Axis – Constant Friction
Outside hinges

45

What is voluntary control?

Stability a patient can willfully control
Limb length
Limb musculature

46

What is inherent stability?

Prosthetic Knee Type
Alignment >> TKA Line (trochanter-knee-ankle line)

47

What are the knee friction goals?

Primarily for swing phase
To control knee friction
Limit heel rise
Prevent terminal impact

48

What are the knee friction types?

Mechanical Friction
Fluid Friction
Outside Friction

49

What is mechanical friction

Simple in design
Adjustable
Constant friction
Static resistance to force
Offers no stance phase stability

50

What is fluid friction?

Complex in design
Heavier, more maintenance
Dynamic resistance to force
Offers some stance phase stability
Smooth gait
Patients with varying cadence

51

What are outside hinges for knee joints?

Free swinging
Required back-check and extension assist

52

What are the advantages of outside hinges?

Avoid knee length discrepancy
Durable

53

What are the disadvantages of outside hinges?

No inherent stability-no ML stability
No inherent friction control
Poor cosmesis

54

What is the K-level for single axis-constant friction knee system?

K 2-4

55

What are the indications for single axis-constant friction knee system?

Single speed walkers
Pt. with good hip extensors
Heavy duty use

56

What are the contraindications for single axis-constant friction knee system?

Highly active patients
Weak patients
When px weight is important
Variable speed walkers

57

What are the advantages for single axis-constant friction knee system?

Durable, Inexpensive, Reliable

58

What are the disadvantages for single axis-constant friction knee system?

Low stability, difficult to adjust

59

What K-levels are required for the single axis-Hydraulic/Pneumatic Controlled knee?

K 3-4

60

What are the indications for the single axis-Hydraulic/Pneumatic Controlled knee?

Active walkers (120 steps/min)
Variable cadence walkers
Pts with good strength
Pt have voluntary control

61

What are the contraindications for the single axis-Hydraulic/Pneumatic Controlled knee?

Single speed walkers
Weak patients

62

What are the advantages for the single axis-Hydraulic/Pneumatic Controlled knee?

Possible manual stance locking feature
Highly adjustable
Smooth extension assist and gait

63

What are the disadvantages for the single axis-Hydraulic/Pneumatic Controlled knee?

High cost, weight and maintenance

64

What are the K-levels for the Weight Activated - Stance Control?

K 2-3

65

What are the indications for the Weight Activated - Stance Control?

Geriatrics
Low px weight is required
Increased knee stability

66

What are the contraindications for the Weight Activated - Stance Control?

Pts needing heavy duty option
Variable cadence walkers

67

What are the advantages for the Weight Activated - Stance Control?

Easily adjusted, durable, stance locking features
Low weight, cost, and maintenance
Stable because it has extension assist-adjustable tension

68

What are the disadvantages for the Weight Activated - Stance Control?

Only allows single speed cadence
Pt. must unload to break knee

69

What are the K-levels for the polycentric knee?

K 2-4

70

What are the indications for the polycentric knee?

Long TF amputations
Children

71

What are the contraindications for the polycentric knee?

Pt. needs variable cadence knee

72

What are the advantages for the polycentric knee?

Excellent stability, adjustable stability
Cosmesis for long limbs
Possible stance control feature
Possible inherent stance locking feature
Durable

73

What are the disadvantages for the polycentric knee?

Increased weight, cost, maintenance
May take pt. long time to master usage

74

What happens at each instant of flexion?

There is a different center of rotation

75

What K-levels are indicated for manual locking knees?

K 1-2

76

What are the indications for the manual locking knees?

Max knee stability
Knee of last resort

77

What are the contraindications for the manual locking knees?

Active patients
Community ambulators

78

What are the advantages for the manual locking knees?

Pt. knows the knee is locked

79

What are the disadvantages for the manual locking knees?

Difficulties sitting
Un-cosmetic gait
Increased energy expenditure

80

What are different types of microprocessors?

Rio, C-Leg, Power Knee, X3 knee

81

What are the indications for microprocessor knees?

Active patients, good cognitive ability
Has mastery with hydraulic or SNS knee

82

What are the contraindications for microprocessor knees?

Weak musculature
Limited cognitive ability
Unable to vary cadence over 300 yards

83

What are the advantages for microprocessor knees?

MPC controlled
Knee sense chance in cadence and adjusts
Hydraulic control or comparable

84

What are the disadvantages for microprocessor knees?

Battery powered, expensive, maintenance
Not for heavy duty use

85

What does SNS stand for?

Stance and Swing

86

Where should ML stability of the pelvis during mid-stance be placed?

On the prosthetic side

87

How can you conserve energy?

By minimizing excessive lateral
displacement

88

When should AP stability of the pelvis of the prosthetic knee joint occur?

During Initial contact and Terminal stance

89

For ML stability, what are the forces controlled by?

The hip Abductors

90

What 8 things influence ML stability?

1. Ischial weight bearing
2.  Foot position
3.  ADduction of the lateral wall of the socket
4.  Proper contouring of the lateral wall
5.  High medial wall
6.  ML dimension
7.  AP dimension
8.  Belt/band/hip joint

91

What occurs because of Ischial weight bearing?

Displaces the fulcrum medial, reducing the magnitude of the moment. Less force is needed to move the leg.

92

What is the proper position of the foot for the quad socket?

0-65mm outset

93

What is the proper position of the foot for the ischial containment socket?

25-37mm outset

94

What does the proper alignment of the foot cause?

A Varus moment at the knee

95

What does adduction of the lateral wall of the socket do?

Re-establishes the normal
angulation of the femur (6-7o) and Puts the hip ABductors on stretch – better mechanical advantage for the limb

96

What does Proper contouring of the lateral wall do?

Allows for even distribution of forces over the lateral aspect
of the residual limb

97

What does a High medial wall do?

applies the counter pressure to maintain good contact between the femur and the lateral wall of the socket
Counter pressure to lateral wall
Distributive pressure system
Restrict ML movement
Take pressure on ischium
Sub-ischial triangle

98

What does an improper ML dimension do?

Too large an ML will reduce the effectiveness of the lateral and medial walls to stabilize the femur

99

How do you measure the skeletal ML?

At the angle of the Ramus-ramus to trochanter

100

What does proper AP dimension do?

Keeps ischium on the seat

101

What does an too large AP dimension do?

IT is displaced anteriorly
Painful ramal contact
Gait deviations
•  antalgic gait, lateral trunk bending, abducted gait

102

What is anther name for skeletal AP?

Antero-Lateral Measurement

103

When should a silesian belt or hip joint be use?

When hip ABductors are weak
When working with someone that has a short residual limb
High walls are not enough, they gap away and loose
stability
Maximum stability is achieved through a hip joint and pelvic
band

104

How can you conserve energy?

By minimizing excessive lateral
displacement
Narrow base of support

105

When should you compromise energy consumption?

For comfort

106

What are the Compensatory Motions for finding comfort?

Lateral Trunk Bending
ABducted Gait

107

How can you make sure that the GRF remain anterior to the knee through IC to TS?

Knee alignment
Foot alignment and selection
Component selection
Voluntary control (hip extensor power output)

108

What happens with a too soft heel durometer?

Will reach foot flat too quickly
Moving the GRF force ahead too quickly

109

What happens with a too hard heel durometer?

May cause instability at the knee joint
May cause lateral rotation

110

When is a softer heel durometer desired?

High amputation patients because it allows them to reach foot flat.

111

Why is the keel needed?

Anterior support

112

What happens when the keel is too stiff?

a sideward gait