Week 4 - Cardiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4 - Cardiology Deck (19):

If you suspect stroke - what do you check for in examination? What tests would help establish diagnosis?

neurological exam - pupillary size, reflex, bilateral strength

CBC, PTT, head CT scan or MRI


Symptoms of a stroke include _________

gradual or sudden numbness/weakness, especially one side of body
gradual or sudden confusion or trouble speaking/ understanding speech
gradual or sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
gradual or sudden trouble with walking, dizziness, loss of balance/coordination
gradual or sudden severe headache w/ no known cause


The two forms of stroke are _________



An aneurysm is ______ and is associated with _____deficiency

a swelling or dilation in a blood vessel



Hemmorhagic stroke is more common in patients treated with ___________

anticoagulants or platelet anti-aggregants


D-Dimer is a _________

blood test that measures Fibrin Degradation Fragment that is released when a blood clot breaks up


Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include _______

• Sudden feeling of apprehension
• Shortness of breath
• Sharp chest pain
• Rapid pulse
• Sweating
• Cough with bloody sputum
• Fainting


DVT is _______. Symptoms include ______

It is the formation of a blood clot, known as a thrombus, in the deep leg vein.

• Pain
• Sudden swelling in the affected limb
• Enlargement of the superficial veins
• Reddish-blue discoloration
• Skin that is warm to the touch


Lymphedema is ________. Causes of lymphedema include _________

lymphatic dysfunction, resulting in an abnormal
accumulation of interstitial fluid containing high molecular weight proteins

axillary lymphadenectomy, filariasis


Endocarditis is __________

an inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves


Risk factors for endocarditis include _________

•Injection drug use
•recent dental surgery
•permanent central venous access lines
•prior valve surgery
•weakened valves


Causative agents of endocarditis include _______

•Bacterial infection is the most common source of endocarditis.
•However, it can also be caused by fungi.
•In some cases, no causative organism can be identified


Cardiac angiography is an imaging technique used to identify ________

coronary ischemia


Medications used in the management of myocarditis include _________

• Vasodilators (e.g. nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside)
• Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (e.g, enalapril)
• Diuretics (eg, furosemide) to reduce the Pre-load


Myocarditis is ___________

is an uncommon disorder caused by viral infections such as coxsackie virus, adenovirus, and echovirus.


In myocarditis, the heart muscle becomes inflamed and weakened, causing symptoms of___________,
which may mimic a _________.

heart failure
heart attack


Medications used in the management of pericarditis include _________

• Antibiotics
• Pericardiocentesis


Pericarditis is __________. It is usually a complication of ___________ but it can also be caused by _______

is a disorder caused by inflammation of the pericardium.

echovirus or cocksackie viruses

influenza, HIV infection, bacteria


Symptoms of pericarditis include ________

•Chest pain usually relieved by sitting up and leaning forward. Radiating to the neck,
shoulder, and back. Often increases with deep breathing.
•Splinting of ribs
•Dry cough