Week 6 Chapter 12 Revision Sexual Disorders CF Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6 Chapter 12 Revision Sexual Disorders CF Deck (17):
1

What influences sexuality?

*Sexuality is profoundly shaped by culture & experience
*thus it is important to be aware of subjective biases in thinking about diagnoses.
*Gender shapes sexuality: e.g. men report more frequent sexual thoughts & behaviours than women

2

What is Kaplan's four phases of sexual response cycle, and which parts are less applicable to women than men?

4 phases: desire, excitement, orgasm, & resolution
*the desire and excitement phase may not be distinct for women
*Kaplan's definition of the excitement phase might be overly biological

3

DSM-5 divides sexual dysfunctions into 3 categories. What are they, and what are additional criteria that must be present for a diagnosis to be appropriate?

The 3 categories separate dysfunctions of
*Sexual Desire, Arousal, & Interest
*Orgasmic Disorders
*Sexual Pain Disorders
Separate diagnosis are provided for men and women
*Dysfunction should be persistent & recurrent and should cause clinically significant distress or problems with functioning.

4

Although it is hard to get data on sexual dysfunction, due to the private nature of sexual relationships, what were the reportings for sexual dysfunction in one major study?

43% women and 31% men reported at least some symptoms of sexual dysfunction

5

What are the DSM-5 diagnosis for sexual dysfunction?

Disorders involving sexual interest, desire & arousal.
*Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder
*Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire DIsorder
*Erectile Disorder

Orgasmic Disorders:
*Female Orgasmic Disorder
*Premature Ejaculation
*Delayed Ejaculation

Sexual Pain Disorders:
*Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder

*Substance/Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
*Other Specified Sexual Dysfunction
*Unspecified Sexual Dysfunction

6

What are the the psychological, physical, & social and sexual history factors that are thoughts to contribute to successful sexual functioning?

*psychological
-Good emotional health
-Attraction to partner
-Positive attitude towards partner
-Positive sexual attitude

*physical
-Good physical health
-Regular appropriate exercise
-Good Nutrition

*social and sexual history factors
-Positive sexual experiences in past
-Good relationship with partner
-Sexual knowledge or skills

7

What are the the psychological, physical, & social and sexual history factors that are thoughts to contribute to poor sexual functioning?

*psychological
-Depression or Anxiety disorders
-Focus on performance, -Too much routine,
-Poor self esteem, -Uncomfortable environment for sex, -Rigid, narrow attitude toward sex, -Negative thoughts about sex

*physical
-Smoking, -Heavy drinking, -Diabetes
-Cardiovascular problems, -Neurological diseases
-Low physiological arousal, -SSRI meds;
-anti-hypertension meds; =Other drugs

*social and sexual history factors
-Rape or sexual abuse
-Relationship problems (e.g. anger, poor communication)
-Long period of abstinence
-History of hurried sex

8

Masters & Johnson (1970) developed a two-tier model of immediate & distal causes to conceptualise the etiology of human sexual inadequacy.
What did they identify as the distal causes of human sexual inadequacy?
and
What did they identify as the immediate causes of human sexual inadequacy?

The distal causes of human sexual inadequacy are:
*Religious orthodoxy, *Psychosexual trauma
*Homosexual inclination, *Inadequate counselling
*Excessive Alcohol Intake, *Physiological problems
Sociocultural factors

The immediate causes of human sexual inadequacy are taking on a spectator role and fears about performance. Both involve a focus on sexual performance that impedes the natural sexual responses

9

What are some of the treatments for Sexual Dysfunction?

*Masters & Johnson's Sex therapy program
*Anxiety Reduction treatments
*Directed masturbation
*Procedures to change Attitude & Thoughts
*Skills & Communication Training
*Couples Therapy
*Medications & Physical Treatment (common drugs are viagra & Cialis which treat erectile dysfunction; anti-depressants can treat premature ejaculation)

10

What are Paraphilias?

*Paraphilias are a group of disorders defined by recurrent sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities lasting at least six months.
*There is a deviation in what the person is attracted to.
*DSM differentiates the paraphilias based on the source of arousal

11

What are the names of the Paraphilias, as they appear in the DSM-5?

*Voyeuristic Disorder
*Exhibitionistic Disorder
*Frotteuristic Disorder
*Sexual Masochism Disorder
*Sexual Sadism Disorder
*Paedophilic Disorder
*Fetishistic Disorder
*Transvestic Disorder
*Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder
*Unspecified Paraphilic Disorder

12

What is the main source of controversy surrounding the diagnosis of some of the paraphilias, & How has the DSM-5 responded?

*Many people practice variant sexual behaviours such as *Fetishistic Disorder, *Sexual Masochism Disorder, *Sexual Sadism Disorder & *Transvestic Disorder, safely with consenting adult partners & do not experience distress or impairment as a result.
*The DSM-5 emphasises these disorders should only be diagnosed when they cause marked distress or impairment, or when a person engages in sexual activities with a non-consenting person

13

What are paraphilias?

*Paraphilias are a group of disorders defined by recurrent sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities lasting at least six months.
*DSM differentiates the paraphilias based on the source of arousal

14

What are the names of the Paraphilias, as they appear in the DSM-5?

*Voyeuristic Disorder
*Exhibitionistic Disorder
*Frotteuristic Disorder
*Sexual Masochism Disorder
*Sexual Sadism Disorder
*Paedophilic Disorder
*Fetishistic Disorder
*Transvestic Disorder
*Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder
*Unspecified Paraphilic Disorder

15

Why are statistics on the paraphilias unlikely to be accurate?

*People are unlikely to report as some are illegal e.g. Paedophilic Disorder involves non-consenting children;Frotteuristic Disorder involves rubbing on non-consenting people; Voyeuristic & Exhibitionistic Disorder have potential to be illegal
*Even those people who are prosecuted for crimes related to their paraphilic activities are not likely to be charged for voyeurism for example
*Other people may feel stigmatised by society if they acknowledge their paraphilic tendencies, so they too, will under-report

16

What is the etiology of the paraphilias?

*Neurobiological Factors:
-Most people with a paraphilia are men, so speculation for androgens (hormones like testosterone) play a role
-Androgens regulate sexual desire & sexual desire seems to play a large part in the paraphilias
-However men with paraphilias do not seem to have high testosterone or other androgens

*There is likely to be a complex network of causes. Not much is really known

*Psychological Factors:
-focus on risk factors with dominant models: -emphasising conditioning experiences,
-relationship histories,
-abuse: physical &/or sexual
-cognition - hostile thinking
-Inadequate social skills

17

What are some of the treatments for paraphilias?

-Outcomes are highly variable
*Strategies to enhance motivation:
-empathise with victim
-treatment might help change behaviour
-emphasise the negative consequences of their behaviour
*Cognitive Behavioural Treatment:
-aversion therapy
-challenge distorted thinking
-social skills training
-sexual impulse control
-empathy training
-relapse prevention
*Biological treatments:
-chemical or physical castration
-hormone treatments to reduce androgens
-SSRI antidepressants

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