Flashcards in WK18D3 Inflammation Deck (16):
Briefly after wound, __ occurs. Then, vasodilation due to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by __, __, __. Results in increased flow and transient ___ of fluid.
NO, histamine, PGI2
4 ways of vascular leakage or increased permeability include
endothelial contraction (briefly), then junctional retraction. Also via direct injury or leukocyte-dependent damage.
How do endothelial cells attract leukocytes? Which molecules do leukocyte rolling and binding?
Histamine, bradykinin, endotoxin, cytokines (IL-1/TNF-alpha)
Binfing: integrins and Ig-like proteins
If you see neutrophils in a wound (<24 hr old), it is ___ inflammation. Also involved are ___, ___, and ___. In 48-72 hr period, they are replaced by ___.
macs, eos, basos
Endothelial junctions and invaginations express self-binding ____. Leukocytes express it and bind to everted ____ so they can begin ___. No ___ is lost in the process.
Chemokine concentration gradients are important for ___. The gradient is maintained via local retention on ___ and ___. The ___ acts as a sink removing chemokines from circulation to maintain gradient.
proteoglycans, nearby endothelium
Duffy antigen receptor
4 Oxygen dependent killing mechanisms include __. If their production is broken, you have ___. O2-independent mecanisms include
superoxides, myeloperoxidase-dependent killing (bleach), hydroxyl radicals, H2O2
Chronic granulomatous disease
lysozyme, lactoferrin, MBP, defensin, BPI
4 end-results of acute inflammation. It may involve this gross substance...
Resolution, scarring, abscess, chronic inflammation
Major immune cell types for chronic inflammation include __, __, and ___. Non-immune cell types are ___ and ___.
Monocyte, plasma cell, lymphocytes
Fibroblast and endothelial cell
Macrophages are key in chronic inflammation because...
Chemotactic for other cells
Chronic granulomatous inflammation can be seen via ___. They are ___ aggregates of ___ macs. Occur when ___ aren't removed, induced by __. Classic examples are...
T-cell mediated rxns (Th1)
TUBERCULOSIS, syphilis, sarcoid (in SE US), fungal, foreign bodies.
Systemic effects of inflammation
Inflammatory molecules __, ___, and ___ induce __ from the liver. Important ones include ___, ___, ___.
IL-1, TNF, IL-6
C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, SAA (serum amyloid protein).
NOS isoenzymes have 3 types: Type I (nNos) is constitutive in ___, __-dependent. Type II (iNOS) is ___ by __, __, __,and __. Type III (eNOS) constitutive in ___ and regulates ___ and ___.
inducible, TNF-alpha, IL-1, LPS, IFN-gamma
vascular tone, leukocyte recruitment
Defensins are antimicrobial molecules released from ___ cells in intestinal ___.