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Flashcards in Women's Health Drugs Deck (10)
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1

Hormonal Contraceptives

Progestin+/- estrogen
Mechanism: supress LH/FSH secretion, preventing follicular development and ovulation
Side effects:
-bleeding (progestin-only>combo)
-weight gain, acne, hirsutism (if androgenic progestin)
-Urethral dilation
-bactiuria
-amenorrhea
Less frequent:
-MI
-stroke
-jaundice
-depression
Benefits:
-reduce ovarian cysts, ovarian/endometrial cancer, breast disease
-reduce ectopic pregnancy
-reduce menstrual symptoms
-reduce acne/hirsutism (if not androgenic progestin)

2

Non-Oral contraceptives

-Transdermal patch (ortho evra)- combo, monthly patches
-Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing)- insert ring 3/4 weeks in month instead of taking pills
-Subdermal implant (Implanon, Nexplanon)- inserted to upper arm, secretes progestins for 3yr
-Injectable (Depo Provera)- inject progestin every 3 months. Increased risk of weight gain, osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, depression
-IUD
-Sterilization

3

Mifepristone

"Morning after" pill, ie Plan B
Mechanism: progesterone receptor antagonist causing corpus luteum degradation

4

Clomiphene

Class: SERM
Mechanism: partial estrogen receptor agonist, inhibiting normal estrogen negative feedback, causing increased gonadotropin
Use: stimulate ovulation for pregnancy in oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea
Side effects: hot flashes, nausea/vomiting, weight gain, depression, fatigue- basically menstruation

5

Leuprolide

Class: GnRH agonist
Mechanism:
Use: 2nd line after clomiphene for ovarian stimulation, like in IVF

6

Ceftriaxone

Class: 3rd gen cephalosporin
Mechanism: ß-lactam, inhibit wall biosynthesis (bactericidal)
Use: gonorrhea + chlamydia, in conjunction with azithromycin/doxycycline

7

Azithromycin

Class: macrolide
Mechanism: Inhibit 50S ribosome subunit blocking protein synthesis (bacteriostatic)
Use: chlamydia/gonorrhea as secondary agent to ceftriaxone

8

Doxycycline

Class: tetracycline analog
Mechanism: Inhibit protein synthesis targets 30S subunit (bacteriostatic)
Use: gonorrhea/chlamydia secondary to ceftriaxone

9

Metronidazole

Class: nitroimidazole
Mechanism: activation by PFOR forms toxic nitro radical, damages DNA causing apoptosis
Use: trichomoniasis (Protozoa + anaerobes)
Side effects:
-nausea/headache/dry mouth
-vomiting/diarrhea/insomnia/vertigo/dysuria
-rare: neutropenia, pancreatitis, CNS toxicity
Contraindications: CNS disorder, alcohol, pregnancy, nursing

10

Acyclovir, valacyclovir, famcyclovir

Class: antivirals
MEchanism: guanosine analogs competitively inhibit viral DNA pol and cause chain termination
Use: genital herpes
Side effects: GI