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Flashcards in WorldLiterature Deck (63):
1

The coming of Jesus (either in the Incarnation of biblical times or in the 2nd coming at the end of the world); also a time observed in December to prepare for Christmas

Advent

2

Plays that stress the illogical or irrational aspects of experience, usually to show the pointlessness of modern life.

theater of the absurd

3

A group of leaders in the literature and thought of France, supported by the govmt of France and sets standards for use of the French language.

French Academy

4

School of philosphy established by Plato in Athens, one of Greece's first colleges, Aristotle went there, the Academy continued in operation for several hundred years

Plato's Academy

5

"The Boy Who Cried Wolf", "the Fox and the Grapes", "The Tortoise and the Hare"

Aesop's fables

6

Slave who lived from 620 to 560 BC, a fabulist

Aesop

7

"_____ and the Forty Thieves" a story from the "Arabian Nights", he gains access to the cave with treasure of the thieves by saying "Open, sesame"

Ali Baba

8

The Amish broke away from this group in the 17th century

Mennonites

9

Cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants, known for lots of foods such as "shoo-fly pie", "funnel cakes", putting the hole in the doughnut, and putting hex signs above their barns

Pennsylvania Dutch

10

group of churches historically based in the Church of England, combines Catholic and Protestant elements (e.g. they have bishops, but don't accept the authority of the pope)

Anglican Communion

11

Most influential theologian of Middle Ages, saint of the Roman Catholic Church, reconciled faith and reason, listed the 7 deadly sins

Thomas Aquinas

12

"Summa Theologica", in one section he discusses 5 ways to attempt to prove that there is a God

Thomas Aquinas

13

To prevent her execution, she tells a new story every night for 1001 days to her husband the sultan

Scheherazade

14

Also called "The Thousand and One Nights", features Alladin, Ali Baba, and Sinbad the sailor

Arabian Nights

15

"The Seven Voyages of ____"

Sinbad the Sailor

16

Ancient greek dramatist 445-385 BC, author of comedies "The Clouds", "The Frogs", and "Lysistrata", called "The Father of Comedy"

Aristophanes

17

Phileas Fogg

Around the World in Eighty Days (1873)

18

Jules Verne

Around the World in Eighty Days (1873)

19

Christian teacher 354-430 AD, first major medieval philospher, blended Plato and Christian thought, dramatic conversion to Christianity, became a bishop and a saint, wrote "The City of God" and his autobiography "Confessions"

Saint Augustine (also Augustine of Hippo)

20

the incarnation of a Hindu God (the Buddha is a ___ of the god Vishnu)

avatar

21

religion which advocates universal peace and spiritual unit of humankind, founded in Persia in 1863, main hub in Haifa

Bahaism (followers of Baha'i faith)

22

French author who wrote "The Human Comedy", a collection of 91 stories, novels, and essays about French society during the French Restoration

Honore de Balzac

23

Jewish ceremony marking the beginning of religious responsibility for Jewish boys of 13 (and the less popular version for girls is called ___)

bar mitzvah (male) / bat mitzvah (female)

24

Irish-born French absurdist author, wrote "Waiting for Godot" 1953 play (where Godot never shows up)

Samuel Beckett

25

Russian playwright of "The Cherry Orchard" play (1904), "The Three Sisters" (1901) play, and "Dyadya Vanya (Uncle Vanya)" play, and short stories

Anton Chekhov

26

founded Christian Science, a religion that believes that sickness and sin can be overcome by prayer (many refuse medical treatment), also founded the newspaper "Christian Science Monitor"

Mary Baker Eddy

27

A Roman orator, writer, and statesman known for his speeches to the Roman Senate, executed by Mark Antony for badmouthing him

Cicero

28

alphabet used for writing the Russian language and several related languages, most letters differ from the Latin alphabet

Cyrillic alphabet

29

reasoning from the general to the specific (or more accurately the movement from a premis to an absolutely certain conclusion), used by mathematical induction

deductive reasoning

30

reasoning from specific instances to predict general principles (strong argument, but does not have to be absolutely certain)

inductive reasoning

31

___ is an established church in England, ___ in Scandinavian countries, ___ in Scotland

Church of England, Lutheran Church, Presbyterian Church

32

Worst of the 3 Greek dramatists, wrote "Medea" play (431 BC)

Euripides

33

movement that stresses that people are entirely free and therefore responsible for what they make of themselves, Simon Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Albert Camus

existentialism

34

A scheming Spanish barber, "The Marriage of ___" opera by Mozart and "The Barber of Seville" by Gioacchino Rossini are about him

Figaro

35

French author of "Madame Bovary" (1856), went on trial for offensiveness of immoral female lead (acquitted), led naturalism/realism in French literature

Gustave Flaubert

36

Italian saint, created the nativity scene, known for his love of nature and animals, helping those in poverty, two major US cities named after him

St. Francis of Assisi (Santa Fe and San Francisco), followers are called Franciscans

37

men's fraternal organization (secret society) with some religious aspects, claim descent from the builders of the Temple in Jerusealem, organize in lodges, many famous people (Mozart, Ben Franklin, George Washington)

Freemasons

38

Scottish philosopher known for his skepticism and empiricism, belief that sense and experience are the sole foundation of knowledge, wrote "A Treatise of Human Nature" (1739), his writings awoke Immanuel Kant from his dogmatic slumber

David Hume

39

19th century Danish philosopher, the father of existentialism

Soren Kierkegaard

40

list basic tenets of kosher foods

animals have to have hooves and chew their cud (excludes pork), no mixing of dairy products and meat, no shellfish

41

Wrote "On Liberty" essay (1859) in defense of the liberal idea of political freedom, utilitarian (action is right if it promotes more happiness)

John Stuart Mill

42

unleavened bread resembling a large cracker, used by Jews I place of yeast bread during Passover (God told Jews to eat unleavened bread, rather than delay their departure from Egypt by waiting for bread to rise)

matzo

43

Brothers Charles and John Wesley founded this Protestant denomination

Methodist

44

17th century French playwright, nom de plume of Jean Baptiste Poquelin, France's greatest comic dramatist

Moliere

45

French equivalent to the Tony Awards are named after this French playwright, supported by Louis XIV (he was godfather to his son)

Moliere

46

best known for his comedies of satire "Tartuffe", "The Misanthrope", "The School of Husbands", "The School for Wives", "The Miser", "The Bourgeois Gentlemen", died while playing title role in his play "The Imaginary Invalid"

Moliere

47

19th century German philosopher, asserted "God is dead" and opposed Christianity, developed concept of "Superman", a superior human being not bounded by right and wrong,

Friedrich Nietzsche

48

wrote "Thus Spake Zarathustra" (where he introduced the idea of Superman) (also a piece by ____ featured in 2001: A Space Odyssey)

Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Strauss

49

17th century French mathematician, scientist, and philsopher, has a theorem, law, unit of pressure, programming language, and triangle named after him

Blaise Pascal

50

20th century Russian author and poet, wrote "Doctor Zhivago" which Soviet censors refused to publish, but was published in English and Italian, won 1958 Nobel Prize in literature but was forced to reject it

Boris Pasternak

51

this used by alchemists was thought to be capable of chanting other metals into gold or improve your health

philospher's stone

52

French author of series of 7 novels called "Remembrance of Things Past" (or "In Search of Lost Time") (1913-1927)

Marcel Proust

53

16th century French writer, wrote "Gargantua and Pantagruel" (1532) about two giants, known for grotesque and bawdy humor

Francois Rebelais

54

18th century French author, notorious for his works dealing with sexual perversity, was jailed in the Bastille for cruel acts and sexual behavior, fought in the 7 years war, played by Gregory Rush in "Quills", died in an asylum

Marquis de Sade

55

20th century French writer and aviator, wrote "The Little Prince" (1943) a metaphorical fairy tale about a desert-stranded pilot and a wandering child from another planet

Antoine de Saint-Exupery

56

the language of ancient India (1500 - 600 BC), one of the oldest languages, primary language of Hinduism and Buddhism, not spoken commonly anymore (although is listed as an official language of India), (e.g. Buddha = englightened one in this language)

Sanskrit

57

20th century French philosopher, father of existentialism, wrote "Being and Nothingness" (1943) and the "No Exit" play (1944), won Nobel Prize in Literature in 1964 but refused

Jean-Paul Sartre

58

"Yentl" with Barbra Streisand was based a story by this Polish-born 20th century American novelist, critic, and journalist, won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1978

Isaac Bashevis Singer

59

Play (and a movie with Barbara Streisand) about a Jewish girl in Poland who dresses like a man so she can study the Talmud under Jewish law after her father dies, features song "Papa, Can You Hear Me?"

Yentl

60

20th Russian author, imprisoned 8 years in a gulag labor camp for writing critical of Stalin (wrote "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" (1962) about an inmate based on his experiences), wrote "The Gulag Archipelago" (1973) which led to his deporation

Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn

61

In Juadism, a house of worship

synagogue

62

Hindu God known as the Preserver, has appeared as Krishna and as the Buddha

Vishnu

63

the general moral, iltellectual, and cultural climate of an era (e.g. the ___ of England during the Victorian period was a belief in Industrial progress)

zeitgeist