Flashcards in WSET Level 2 Exam Deck (165):
If a wine is "off" it is referred to as ______ .
The most common fault that can be discovered on the nose is?
Wines that are slightly sweet are called?
Tannin is present is grapes skins. High levels of tannins indicate what type of climate?
What is the body of the wine?
"mouth-feel"; richness, weight or viscosity
What characteristics indicate a good wine?
well balanced, smooth, complexity, layers to wine
What wine would match a rich heavyweight food?
full-bodied wines. Preferably red wine, but full-bodied white can go well
What does a wine need to match tomatoes, olive oil and vinegar?
If you have a dry wine with a dessert what happens to the wine?
it will seem tart and over-acidic
What component in wine is a good match with protein?
wines with high levels of tannin
a, b, c, d, e"
a. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
What affects the style and quality of wine each year?
Climate; weather conditions vary from year to year
What are four vineyard activies?
1. careful pruning
Lower yields result in ________ grapes
riper; with more concentrated flavors
What are two pests in the vineyard?
Animal pests (birds
When does harvesting occur?
once the grapes have ripened. End of September or end of August if it's a good summer
White wines and red wines are both crushed but what extra step happens to white wines after they have been crushed?
they are pressed to separate juice from skins
What temperature does white wine get fermented at?
12-22 Celsius (53.6-71.6 Fahrenheit): preserves delicate fruit aromas
What temperature does red wine get fermented at?
20-32 Celsius (68-89.6 Fahrenheit)
What vessels can wine mature in?
barrels or large neutral wooden or stainless steel vats, concrete. Also takes place in bottle after bottling
What vessels allow oxidation?
new and old vats or barrels (oak)
What vessels do not allow oxidation?
bottles, cement, and stainless steel vats
What does vintage mean?
the year the grapes were harvested
The European Union divides its wine into 2 categories that are:
a. wines with a geographical location (GI)
a. Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC)
e. Quality Level"
What are estate, chateau, domaine, and weingut?
wines produced only using grapes that been grown on its own land
What is a merchant or negotiant?
they blend together wines and/or grapes bought in from winemakers and grape farmers
What is a co-op, co-operative cellar or cantina sociale?
a wine-making facility whose ownership is shared by a number of grape farmers
Chardonnay likes cool, moderate and hot climates. Give an example of each of these regions.
Dairy flavors are the side products of a process called?
What are lees?
dead yeast cells left behind after fermentation has finished
What are the areas in Burgundy that make classic Chardonnay?
a. Maconnais - Pouilly-Fuisse
What are six other countries that make Chardonnay?
1. Australia - Margaret River, Adelaide Hills, Yarra Valley,
What are the two climates that Pinot Noir likes?
cool or moderate
What are four characteristics of Pinot Noir?
Thin skins, light in color with low to medium levels of tannin. Red fruit, vegetal and animal nuances. Most are consumed young and still fruity
Generic Pinot Noir can come from Burgundy AC (Bourgogne AC) but what are four specific areas that make top quality Pinot Noir in Burgundy?
What is Pinot Noir referred to in Germany?
What area in the US does Pinot Noir do well?
California: Carneros, Sonoma, Santa Barbara - full-bodied, intensely fruity, some display pronounced animal/vegetal characteristics
Why is Pinot Noir not so successful in Australia?
Australia is too hot for Pinot Noir.
Bulk Pinot Noir comes from this small Eastern European country?
Cabernet Sauvignon has aromas of __________ and had high levels of _________.
1. black fruits (black cherry, black currant)
A bit further south of Bordeaux is another region that makes great red and this is called ________ and has the very famous village Pessac Leognan (white wine) within it."
On the right bank of Bordeaux are the two famous areas of: a,b
a. St. Emillion
Merlot is a little less _______ than Cabernet Sauvignon but has more _______ and ________
Cabernet Sauvignon does very well in this valley in California?
What is Carmenere?
an important black fruit grape variety originally from Bordeaux
c. Hawkes Bay"
a. South Africa (Western Cape)
Sauvignon Blanc typically has the following characteristics:
strong aromas of green fruit and vegetation, high in acidity, medium-bodied, almost always dry
What are the two towns in the Loire Valley that make Sauvignon Blanc?
Sauvignon Blanc is blended with Semillon and Muscadelle to make dry and sweet white wines in this area?
Where is Marlborough?
What are two other countries that make Sauvignon Blanc in the New World?
What are the characteristics of Riesling?
In Germany basic Rieslings are generally classified as _________ and above this in quality is ________.
What is the order of sweetness levels in German Pradikatswein?
Mosel, Germany produces what type of Rieslings?
Rheingau produces what type of Rieslings?
Where is Pflaz?
Southern Germany (lies close to Alsace, France)
What are the two valleys in Australia that produce Riesling?
What are other countries that produce Riesling?
Are Welschriesling, Laski Riesling and Olasrizling Rieslings?
What are the characteristics of Syrah?
thick skins, deeply colored, with medium or high levels of tannins and medium acidity. Full-bodied with black fruit and dark chocolate flavors
What are the characteristics of Grenache?
thin skinned, seldom deep in color, very full-bodied, red fruit flavors with spicy notes. With age, spicy notes evolve into toffee
What are three areas in Northern Rhone famous for Syrah?
What are the blends often referred to in the Southern Rhone?
Grenache with Syrah, Mourvedre and Cinsault
What is Chateauneuf du Pape?
A southern Rhone appellation: mostly Grenache but can have up to 13 different varietals in wine --> typically full-bodied, medium tannins, low acidity, and intense, complex red fruit
What is a famous area in Australia that makes Syrah/Shiraz?
Barossa Valley (number one)
Grenache (Grenacha) is often blended with Tempranillo to make ________ but when it dominates the blend or is even 100% it is made in __________ in Spain.
Bulk Syrah and Grenache are made in which areas of Southern France?
What white wine is added to Syrah to soften the blend?
The main form of branding in Bordeaux is _______?
The main in Bordeaux if often referred to as __________.
If a wine is regional in Bordeaux it will be called ____________.
What happened in 1855?
The French government ranked all of the best wines in Medoc. Rankings still stand today.
What are the 6 communes in Medoc (Bordeaux)?
Red grapes of Bordeaux:
Green grapes of Bordeaux:
Grapes of Burgundy:
Cote d'Or in Burgundy is made up of the _________ in the North and the __________ in the South.
Cote de Nuits (North)
Which is better quality? Premier Cru or Grand Cru?
What is a domaine?
a producer that makes wine exclusively from grapes grown in their own vineyards
e. Nuits St. Georges"
a. Red (Pinot Noir)
Beaujolais is made from which grape?
Place the Beaujolais appellation's in order of quality, starting with the highest quality.
1. Beaujolais Crus (10 famous villages such as Morgon and Moulin a Vent AC)
Why is Alsace so warm, sunny, and dry?
Vosges mountains on west protect from rain/wind. Vines are planted on the eastern foothills, and benefit from the morning sun.
What is Alsace Grand Cru AC?
a wine from a superior vineyard site
What are two famous grapes from Alsace?
What is the white wine (Loire Valley) that is often left sur lie?
What are the two grapes that dominate the Touraine and Anjou-Saumur region in the Loire Valley?
red: Cabernet Franc
The Central Vineyards (Loire Valley) make Sauvignon Blanc in these two towns:
The Northern part of the Rhone Valley is a monoculture with only really this grape:
The Southern part of the Rhone Valley is all about blending with these grapes:
SKIP. The majority of France's vin de pays wines are made in the Rhone and they are referred to as (Vin de Pays ____).
What are the main appellations in Languedoc-Roussillon?
What do the terms Grosses Gewachs, Erstes Gewachs, and Erste Lage mean?
a high quality dry wine from a single named vineyard
If you see Classic or Selection on a German wine label this indicates the wine is a ______ style.
How many regions (anbaugebeite) in Germany are there?
13 quality regions
What is Liebfraumilch?
German bulk wine
What is Hock?
Same as Liebfraumilch (German bulk wine) but does not have to be a QbA (Qualitatswein)
a. heartland. Indicates the historic center of many DOC and DOCG regions. Located on the hills, these are usually the best sites and produce the best wine
f. Montepulciano D'Abruzzo DOC"
a. Piedmont (R) , Nebbiolo (G)
Primitivo, Aglianico, and Negroamaro"
Where does Pinot Grigio do well in Italy?
Northeastern area (Trentino
What are other white Italian varietals?
Trebbiano - most planted white grape
c. Gran Reserva"
a. 1 year
The DOC region Rioja (Spain) uses which varietals?
The Ribera del Duero DOC area in Spain used which grape varietals?
In Navarro (Spain) the grape Tempranillo is often blended with ____________.
international varieties such as: Merlot
What type of wine does Catalunya in Spain make?
What color are the wines from Rias Baixas and Rueda in Spain?
What type of wine comes from La Mancha, Valdepenas and Valencia in Spain?
These areas in Portugal produce quality reds: a,b,c
Most exported wine comes from this region in the Southeast part of Portugal?
What is Vinho Verde DOC (Portugal)?
white, un-oaked, light-bodied with light alcohol, high acidity, and a slight fizz
What are the two specific grapes in South Africa?
1. Black: Pinotage
What varietal does very well in the Hunter Valley in Australia?
What is the black grape indigenous to California?
What are the two grapes from Argentina?
What varietal makes Asti DOCG?
What is Prosecco?
a dry, white sparkling wine made in NE Italty in Veneto
What is the difference between Sekt and Deutscher Sekt?
Sekt is German word for sparkling wine. Labeled Sekt uses wines from anywhere in EU. Deutscher Sekt can only be made from German base wines (typically Rieslings)
What is the traditional method?
the bottle is slowly tipped and jiggled so that the yeast cells slid into the neck of bottle. Tipping/jiggling can be done by hand or machine
What is the transfer method?
empty entire contents of the bottles into a tank under pressure. It is then filtered to remove the yeast, dosaged, and rebottled
Most Champagne is __________.
Cava is from _________.
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise and Muscat de Rivesaltes are called _________________.
Vins Doux Naturels
Where is Moscatel de Valencia from?
To concentrate the grapes you can do the following: Give an example of each:
a. Dried: PX Sherry
a. Noble Rot
What is the system called that matures sherry?
Solera aging system
What is Fino?
pale, dry Sherry
What is a Pale Cream Sherry?
Fino Sherry that has been sweetened
What is an Amontillado Sherry
Fino Sherry with more alcohol (less flor, therefore oxidises slightly)
Oloroso Sherries are fortified after fermentation to 18% abv so a _______ does not develop.
If Oloroso's are sweetened they are referred to as __________ or __________.
Cream Sherry or Oloroso Dulce
Which is better quality - ruby port or reserve ruby port?
reserve ruby port
Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) Ports come from a single _________.
Traditional style LBV need to be __________.
Vintage Ports and Single Quinta Vintage Ports come from the best ____________ and are only made in the _______ years.
Tawny Ports can come in three quality levels, what are they?
What are the two most common types of still?
1. Pot Still
the alcohol that evaporates during distillation
What is Cognac?
an oak-aged grape brandy from a delimited region to the north of Bordeaux. Must be made using a copper pot still. Generally have distinctly fruity-floral aromas, medium to light in body, with smooth alcohol
What is Armagnac?
an oak-aged grape brandy from a delimited area to the south of Bordeaux. Most is made using a version of the column still that gives a relatively low-strength spirit that is quite harsh but full of character. Dried-fruit aromas, medium to full bodied, with sometimes harsh alcohol
a. Very Special - 2 years
What region of Spain makes Brandy?
What is a malt whiskey?
made using only malted barley. distillation takes place in copper pot stills
What is a single malt whiskey?
a malt whiskey that comes from just one distillery
What is a blended Scotch Whiskey?
blend of malt
What is Bourbon?
American whiskey. Made using a mixture of grains (majority must be maize). Made using combo of column and pot still. Low-spirit strength with harsh alcohol and robust flavors. Aged in heavily charred new American oak barrels
What is the difference about Tennessee whiskey compared to Bourbon?
produced in a similar way, but is filtered through maple wood charcoal before bottling. Results in smoother spirit, adds sweet, smoky flavors
d. Plata (Silver)"
a. older than 1 year
Cheap gins cold compound with botanicals such as juniper - what do the more upmarket distilled gins and London dry gins do?
they do a second distillation
Pernod, Ricard, Pastis, Ouzo, and Absinthe all have a flavor of _______.
What are bitters?
a bitter or bittersweet type of spirit made from different herbs, roots and plants. Used to flavor and add a dry zest to cocktails. high alcohol. helps the digestive system and should be consumed after a meal
a. fruit (black currant)
For long term storage of wine the temp should be ____________.
c. Well Chilled ______ degrees Celsius"
15-18 degrees Celsius