XIV - The Kidneys and Its Collecting System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XIV - The Kidneys and Its Collecting System Deck (150)
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61

Protozoa associated with increased risk of bladder carcinoma.

Schistosoma haematobium(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 576

62

Chemotherapeutic agent associated with development of hemorrhagic cystitis and increased risk of bladder carcinoma.

Cyclophosphamide(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 576

63

Electron Microscopy: Subepithelial humps

PSGN (TOPNOTCH)

64

Light Microscopy: Hyalinized glomeruli

Chronic Glomerulonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

65

Electron Microscopy: Subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulopathy (TOPNOTCH)

66

Electron Microscopy: Loss of foot processes

Minimal Change Disease (TOPNOTCH)

67

Electron Microscopy: Subendothelial deposits

MPGN Type 1 (TOPNOTCH)

68

Flourescence Microscopy: Linear IgG and C3

Goodpasture's disease (TOPNOTCH)

69

Light Microscopy: Normal, with lipid in tubules

Minimal Change Disease (TOPNOTCH)

70

What are the 3 classic diagnostic features of RCC?

1. Costovertebral Pain (TOPNOTCH)2. Palpable Mass3. Hematuria

71

Among the 3 classic diagnostic features of RCC, which feature is the most reliable?

Hematuria (TOPNOTCH)

72

RCC morphology: pale eosinophilic cells, often with a perinuclear halo, arranged in solid sheets with a concentration of the largest cells around the blood vessels

Chromophobe RCC (TOPNOTCH)

73

RCC morphology: rounder or polygonal shape and have abundant clear or granular cytoplasm with stains with glycogen and lipid

Clear Cell RCC (TOPNOTCH)

74

RCC morphology: arise from DCT and are typically hemorrhagic and cystic

Papillary RCC (TOPNOTCH)

75

RCC morphology: irregular channels lined by highly atypical epithelium with a hobnail pattern.

Collecting Duct Carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

76

RCC morphology: Interstitial foam cells and psamomma bodies

Papillary Carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

77

Urolithiasis: most common type

Calcium Oxalate stones (TOPNOTCH)

78

Urolithiasis: staghorn calculi

Triple stones/ struvite stones/ Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate stones (TOPNOTCH)

79

Urolithiasis: caused by genetic defects in the renal absorption of amino acids

Cystine stones (TOPNOTCH)

80

Urolithiasis: associated with urea-splitting bacteria

Triple stones/ struvite stones/ Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate stones (TOPNOTCH)

81

Urolithiasis: radiolucent

Uric Acid Stones (TOPNOTCH)

82

Urolithiasis: common in patients with leukemia

Uric Acid Stones (TOPNOTCH)

83

What is the most common cause of renal artery stenosis?

Occlusion by an atheromatous plaque at the origin of the renal artery (TOPNOTCH)

84

What is the most common type of Fibromuscular Dysplasia; intimal, medial, or adventitial?

Medial (TOPNOTCH)

85

Gross morphology: flea bitten appearance of the kidneys

Malignant Hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

86

What are the two histological alterations in the blood vessels of patients with malignant hypertension?

1. Fibrinoid Necrosis of arterioles2. Onion-skinning (TOPNOTCH)

87

What are the 3 complications of acute pyelonephritis?

1. Papillary Necrosis2. Pyonephrosis3. Perinephric Abscess (TOPNOTCH)

88

Among the 3 complications of acute pyelonephritis, which one is mainly seen in diabetics and in those with urinary tract obstruction?

Papillary necrosis (TOPNOTCH)

89

Morphology: acute neutrophilic exudate within tubules and the renal substance

Acute pyelonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

90

ATN morphology: focal tubular epithelial necrosis at multiple points along the nephron, with large skip areas in between

Ischemic ATN (TOPNOTCH)