XIV - The Kidneys and Its Collecting System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XIV - The Kidneys and Its Collecting System Deck (150)
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91

ATN morphology: manifested by acute tubular injury with non specific tubular necrosis

Toxic ATN (TOPNOTCH)

92

ATN morphology: Eosinophilic hyaline casts containing Tamm Horsfall protein

Ischemic ATN (TOPNOTCH)

93

ATN morphology: severely injured cells that are not yet dead might contain large acidophilic inclusions

Mercuric Chloride ATN (TOPNOTCH)

94

ATN morphology: accumulation of neutral lipids in injured cells

Carbon Tetrachloride poisoning (TOPNOTCH)

95

ATN morphology: marked ballooning and hydrophic or vacuolar degeneration of proximal convulated tubules and often times calcium oxalate crystals are seen in the lumen

Ethylene Glycol ATN (TOPNOTCH)

96

Morphology: patchy interstitial suppurative inflammation, intratubular aggregates of neutrophils, and tubular necrosis

Acute pyelonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

97

Gross morphology: irregularly scarred; if bilateral, the involvement is asymmetric

Chronic pyelonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

98

Gross morphology: kidneys are diffusely and symmetrically scarred

Chronic glomerulonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

99

Morphology: hallmark is the coarse, discrete, corticomedullary scar overlying a dilated, blunted, or deformed calyx

Chronic pyelonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

100

What is the main cause of renal dysfunction in Multiple Myeloma?

Bence Jones protein (TOPNOTCH)

101

Morphology: bence jones tubular casts appear as pink to blue amorphous masses, sometimes concentrically laminated, often with fractured and angulated appearance, filling and distending the lumens

Multiple Myeloma (TOPNOTCH)

102

Morphology: narrowing of the lumens of arterioles and small arteries, caused by thickening and hyalinization of the walls (hyaline arteriolosclerosis)

Benign nephrosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)

103

Morphology: classic diagnostic finding is enlarged hypercellular glomeruli

PSGN (TOPNOTCH)

104

Gross morphology: wedge-shaped lesions, with base against the cortical surface and the apex pointing toward the medulla

Renal infarcts (TOPNOTCH)

105

What is the first step in the pathogenesis of ascending infection that leads to pyelonephritis?

Colonization of the distal urethra and introits by coliform bacteria (TOPNOTCH)

106

Morphology: "fibrin caps" and "capsular drops"

Diabetic kidney (TOPNOTCH)

107

Morphology: diffuse increase in mesangial matrix and characteristic PAS positive nodules

Diabetic glomerulosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)

108

Flourescence microscopy: deposition of IgA, sometimes with IgG and C3, in the mesangial region

Henoch Schonlein Purpura (TOPNOTCH)

109

Gross morphology: wedge-shaped lesions, with base against the cortical surface and the apex pointing toward the medulla

Renal infarcts (TOPNOTCH)

110

What is the most common cause of clinical pyelonephritis?

Ascending infection (TOPNOTCH)

111

Morphology: "tram track" "double contour" glomerular capillary walls

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

112

Morphology: collapsed glomerular tufts and the crescent shaped mass of proliferating cells and leukocytes internal to Bowman capsule

Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (TOPNOTCH)

113

Morphology: glomeruli show thickening and sometimes splitting of capillary walls, due largely to endothelial and subendothelial swelling, and deposits of fibrin-related materials in the capillary lumens, subendothelially, and in the mesangium.

Childhood Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome(TOPNOTCH)

114

Gross morphology: fine, leathery granularity of the surface of the kidney

nephrosclerosis(TOPNOTCH)

115

What is the emerging viral pathogen that causes pyelonephritis in kidney allografts?

Polyoma virus(TOPNOTCH)

116

Morphology: enlarged tubular epithelial cells with nuclear inclusions

Polyoma kidney (TOPNOTCH)

117

Electron microscopy: irregular thickening of the BM of the glomerulus, lamination of the lamina densa, and foci of rarefaction

Alport Syndrome (TOPNOTCH)

118

Morphology: lamina densa of the GBM is transformed into an irregular, ribbon like, extremely electron dense structure

Dense Deposit Disease or Type II MPGN (TOPNOTCH)

119

ESRD is defined as GFR less than how many percent of normal?

5%(TOPNOTCH)

120

Renal failure is defined as GFR less than how many percent of normal?

20%-25%(TOPNOTCH)