XXIII - The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XXIII - The Nervous System Deck (209)
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121

Morphology: pathognomonic finding is a spongiform transformation of the cerebral cortex

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease(CJD)(TOPNOTCH)

122

Morphology: mononuclear cell perivacular cuffs and neuronophagia of the anterior horn motor neurons of the spinal cord

Poliomyelitis(TOPNOTCH)

123

In the immunosuprressed individual, the most common pattern of involvement in viral meningitis is:

Subacute encephalitis(TOPNOTCH)

124

Although any type of cell within the CNS can be infected with CMV, the virus tends to localize at what particular area in the brain?

Paraventricular subependymal regions(TOPNOTCH)

125

What is the principal neurologic manifestation of Von Hippel Lindau Disease?

Cerebellar capillary hemangioblastoma(TOPNOTCH)

126

Antoni A and Antoni B patterns of growth are seen in what tumors of the CNS?

Schwannoma(TOPNOTCH)

127

Morphology: histologic appearance similar to anaplastic astrocytoma with the additional feature of necrosis and vascular or endothelial cell proliferation

Glioblastoma multiforme(TOPNOTCH)

128

Pseudopalisading

Glioblastoma multiforme(TOPNOTCH)

129

Glomeruloid body

Glioblastoma multiforme(TOPNOTCH)

130

Lesion of what area of the brain appear to be the best correlate of the memory disturbance and confabulation seen in Korsakoff syndrome?

Medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus(TOPNOTCH)

131

Morphology: foci of hemorrhage and necrosis, particularly in the mammillary bodies but also adjacent to the ventricle, especially the third and fourth ventricles

Wernicke encephalopathy(TOPNOTCH)

132

The spinal cord shows loss of axons and gliosis in the posterior columns, the distal portions of the corticospinal tracts, and the spinocerebellar tracts.

Friedreich Ataxia(TOPNOTCH)

133

The abnormalities are predominantly in the cerebellum,with loss of Purkinje and granule cells; there is also degeneration of the dorsal columns, spinocerebellar tracts and anterior horn cells and a peripheral neuropath

Ataxia Telangiectasia(TOPNOTCH)

134

Gross morphology: pallor of the substantia nigra

Parkinson Disease(TOPNOTCH)

135

Gross morphology: the brain shows pronounced, frequently asymmetric, atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes with conspicuous sparing of the posterior two thirds of the superior temporal gyrus

Pick Disease(TOPNOTCH)

136

What are the 3 major microscopic abnormalities of Alzheimer disease?

Neuritic/Senile PlaquesNeurofibrillary tanglesAmyloid angiopathy(TOPNOTCH)

137

What is the principal clinical manifestation of Alzheimer disease?

Dementia(TOPNOTCH)

138

What is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly?

Alzheimer Disease(TOPNOTCH)

139

Gross morphology: variable degree of cortical atrophy with widening of the cerebral sulci that is most pronounced in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes with compensatory ventricular enlargement (hydrocephalus ex vacuo)

Alzheimer Disease(TOPNOTCH)

140

Neurotic plaques are focal, spherical collection of dilated, tortuous, silver staining neuritic processes often around a central amyloid core, which may be surrounded by clear halo, and can be stained with Congo red. What is the most predominant component of this plaque core?

AB peptide(TOPNOTCH)

141

Neurofibrillary tangles are bundles of filaments in the cytoplasm of the neurons that displace or encircle the nucleus. What is the major component of this structure?

Tau proteins(TOPNOTCH)

142

Hirano bodies

Alzheimer's disease (TOPNOTCH)

143

What is the principal neurologic manifestation of Von Hippel Lindau Disease?

Cerebellar capillary hemangioblastoma(TOPNOTCH)

144

Patients with Von Hippel Lindau Disease has the propensity to develop what type of carcinom?

Renal Cell Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)

145

These are firm areas of the cortex that, in contrast to the softer adjacent cortex, have been likened to potatoes and are composed of haphazardly arranged neurons that lack the normal laminar organization of neocortex.

Cortical hamartomas or "tubers' of Tuberous Sclerosis (TOPNOTCH)

146

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST, Malignant Schwannoma) is strongly associated with what type of Familial Tumor Syndrome?

Neurofibromatosis Type 1(TOPNOTCH)

147

What are the 5 most common carcinoma that metastasize to the brain?

Lung, breast, Melanoma, Kidney, and GIT. (TOPNOTCH)

148

What is the most common CNS neoplasm in immunosuppressed patients, including those with AIDS and immunosuppression after transplantaion?

Primary CNS Lymphoma(TOPNOTCH)

149

Morphology: composed of sheets of regular cells with spherical nuclei containing finely granular chromatin surrounded by a clear halo of cytoplasm and calcification if present in as many as 90% of these tumors.

Oligodendroglioma(TOPNOTCH)

150

Morphology: characterized by amild to moderate increase in the number of glial cell nuclei, somewhat variable nuclear pleomorphism, and an interveing feltwork of fine, GFAP positive astrocytic cell processes that give the background a fibrillary appearance.

Well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas(TOPNOTCH)