XXIII - The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XXIII - The Nervous System Deck (209)
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151

Morphology: perivascular pseudorosettes

Ependymoma(TOPNOTCH)

152

Morphology: the anterior roots of the spinal cord are thin; the precentral gyrus may be atrophic and demonstrates a reduction the number of anterior horn neurons throughout the length of the spinal cord with associated reactive gliosis. Remaining neurons often contain Bunina bdoies and PAS positive cytoplasmic inclusions.

Amyotorphic Lateral Sclerosis(TOPNOTCH)

153

Morphology: composed of bipolar cells with long, thin "hairlike" processes that are GFAP- Positive; Rosenthal fibers, eosinophilic granular bodies, and microcysts are often present.

Pilocytic Astrocytoma (TOPNOTCH)

154

Morphology: similar to anaplastic astrocytoma with the additional features of necrosis and vascular or endothelial cell proliferation, each of which often has a stereotypic appearance.

Glioblastoma Multiforme(TOPNOTCH)

155

Morphology: characterized by areas of stromal response with collagen and reticulin deposition and nodules of cells forming "pale islands" that have more neuropil and lack the reticulin deposition

Desmoplastic variant of Medulloblastoma(TOPNOTCH)

156

Gross morphology: the brain is small and shows striking atrophy of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. The globus pallidus may be atrophied secondarily, and the lateral and third ventricles are dilated.

Huntington Disease(TOPNOTCH)

157

What are the two most common primary tumors of the optic nerve?

Glioma and Meningioma (TOPNOTCH)

158

Morphology: characterized histologically by chronic inflammation and replacement of orbital fat by fibrosis

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (TOPNOTCH)

159

What is the most common malignancy of the eyelid?

Basal cell carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

160

Morphology: histological hallmark is the thinning of the cornea with breaks in the Bowman's layer

Keratoconus (TOPNOTCH)

161

Morphology: deposition of calcium in Bowmans layer

Calcific Band keratopathy (TOPNOTCH)

162

This type of keratopathy develops in patients who are exposed chronically to high levels of ultraviolet light

Actinic band keratopathy (TOPNOTCH)

163

Morphology: numerous drop like excrescences - guttata- protrude downward from Descemet's membrane

Fuchs dystrophy (TOPNOTCH)

164

Also known as the End-Stage Eye

Phthisis Bulbi (TOPNOTCH)

165

Morphology: diffuse loss of ganglion cells and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, in advanced cases, the optic nerve is both cupped and atrophic

Glaucomatous optic nerve damage (TOPNOTCH)

166

Flexner Wintersteine Rosettes

Retinoblastoma (TOPNOTCH)

167

Morphology: a neovascular membrane is positioned between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruchs membrane

Age related macular degeneration (TOPNOTCH)

168

"waxy pallor" of the optic disk

Retinitis Pigmentosa (TOPNOTCH)

169

In this condition, both rods and cones are lost to apoptosis

Retinitis Pigmentosa (TOPNOTCH)

170

Elschnig' spots

Malignant hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

171

What is known to be a reliable histological marker of diabetes mellitus in the eye?

Thickening of the BM of the epithelium of the pars plicata of the ciliary body (TOPNOTCH)

172

Cytoid bodies

Hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

173

Macular star

Malignant hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

174

Morphology: characterized by diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the urea. Plasma cells are typically absent, but eosiophils may be identified in the infiltrate

Sympathetic ophthalmia (TOPNOTCH)

175

What is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults?

Metastasis to the uvea, typically to the choroid (TOPNOTCH)

176

What is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults?

Uveal melanoma (TOPNOTCH)

177

These are the resident monocyte-lineage population of CNS that proliferate and accumulate in response to injury.

Microglia (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1254

178

Subfalcine(cingulate) herniation leads to compression of what blood vessel?

Anterior cerebral artery(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1255

179

Transtentoria(uncinate) herniation compress what structures?

CN III and Posterior Cerebral artery(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1255

180

Patient X who had a moderate traumatic injury presented with lethargy. 12 hours later it he progressed rapidly to having dilated pupils and impairment of ocular movements. This is most likely due to:

Transtentorial (uncinate) herniation/CN III compression (TOPNOTCH)