Year 3: Ageing Flashcards Preview

Finals Club (Dundee Medicine Master Summary Deck) > Year 3: Ageing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Year 3: Ageing Deck (57)
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1

In elderly albumin

Decreases

2

In elderly alpha acid glycoprotein

Increases

3

In elderly acidic drugs

Work better (due to decreased albumin, as it binds acids)

4

In elderly basic drugs

Have decreased action

5

In elderly stomach acid

Decreases

6

In elderly body water %

Decreases

7

In elderly the GFR is

Decreased

8

In elderly the therapeutic window for drugs is

Decreased

9

A tool to use in elderly for prescribing

STOP START tool

10

In elderly lipids are

Increased

11

Lipophilic drugs have an

Increased half life (due to increased lipids)

12

Infuenza vaccination is given to

  • Ages 65 +
  • Once per year

13

Pneumococcal vaccination is given to 

  • Ages 65+ 
  • As a once off

14

Shingles vaccination is given to 

  • At age 70
  • As a once off
  • "Varicella zoster"

15

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 

  • Ages 65+
  • USS
  • 3-4.4cm = annual screening
  • 4.5-5.4cm = 3 monthly scan
  • >5.4cm = refer for an operation

16

Colorectal cancer (bowel) screening is for 

  • Ages 50-75
  • Every 2 years

17

Breast cancer screening is for

  • Ages 50-70 (women)
  • Every 3 years

18

Age-related loss of muscle mass and function

Sarcopenia 

19

Muscle mass declines from 

Age 30

20

Muscle mass degradation accelerates at

Age 60 

21

Sarcopenia happens due to

  • Decreased sex hormones (oestrogen)
  • Increased apoptosis
  • Increased mitochondrial dysfunction

22

3 pharmacological interventions for elderly people

  • Creatine/ protein supplements + weight exercise 
  • ACE Inhibitors (reduce inflammation and increase mitochondrial function)
  • Ca2+ and Vit D (for bone strength)

23

Diagnosis of postural hypotension 

  • Systolic is <90mmHg
  • Systolic has reduced by >20mmHg 
  • Diastolic has reduced by >10mmHg

Measure after 3 mins of standing up

24

Management of falls

  • Stop medications if underlying cause
  • Treat underlying cause
  • Strength and balance training (3/7 for 12/52)
  • Attend hobbies like Tai Chi

25

Triad of Delirium 

  • Disturbance in attention "Disoriented"
  • Change in cognition "Disorganised thinking"
  • Acute and fluctuating course

26

Pathophysiology of Delirium

  • Derangement of ACh
  • Caused due to stress
  •  

27

Two types of Delirium 

  • Hyperactive
  • Hypoactive 
  •  

28

Hyperactive 

  • Aggitated 
  • Aggressive 
  • Wandering

29

Hypoactive 

  • Withdrawn
  • Apathetic 
  • Sleepy

30

Assessments of Delirium 

  • 4AT 
  • CAM Assessment