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Flashcards in Zoonoses Deck (8):
1

For bacillus anthracis, list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Common presentation: painless black eschar with swelling
Types: cutaneous (small sore becomes blister, which can become skin ulcer that has edema and won't hurt); GI: nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever; Inahlation: flu symptoms, then cough, chest discomfort, SOB, tired
Characteristics of organism: gram-pos rod
Vector: NONE
Causes: spores in the dirt usually from a dead cow, that you touch or inhale
Treat: Cipro, doxy

2

For tularemia: list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Presentation: Someone who was farming or using lawn mower and hits a rabbit, then inhaling the dust and organism
Types: Ulceroglandular (skin ulcer following tick or deer fly bite maybe), glandular (NO ULCER, but similar to ulceroglandular), oculoglandular (bacteria enters through eye, think person butchering animal and touching eye), oropharyngeal (eating/drinking contaminated food or water); pneumonic (most serious form, due to breathing dusts or aerosols with organism)
Characteristic of organism: aerobic gram neg rod
Vector: see CAUSES
Causes: in US and Canada, think rabbit or fly bites (more virulent); in Europe and Asia, think maybe beaver also taking a dump in water in addition to other causes (less virulent)
Treatment: doxy (Kaplan says streptomycin)

3

For Brucella, list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Presentation: cyclical fever in acute disease (undulant fever); osteoarticular complications, like arthritis, HSM, GI complications, and GU INVOLVEMENT; could see relapse, but low case-fatality rate; someone in Texas or California with ACUTE SEPTICEMIA!!
Characteristics of organism: gram negative bacillus (Brucella abortus e.g.)
Causes: third trimester abortion, endometritis, retained placenta, cow milk yield in cattle; can get contact of conjunctiva with infected tissues, ingestion of maybe raw milk, or inhalation of the infectious aerosols
Vector: NO VECTOR
Treat: Doxy and maybe streptomycin; or combine doxy with gentamicin

4

Plague, list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Causes: from a wild rodent (sylvatic cycle) or a mouse (urban environment); could become pneumonic plague
Types/Presentation: Bubonic (rapid onset of fever and painful, swollen tender lymph nodes = buboes, conjunctivitis), pneumonic (high fever, cough, pneumonia, chills), septicemic (ultimately can progress to acral gangrene and affect fingers and toes)
Characteristics of organism: gram neg bacterium Yersinia pestis
Vector: FLEAS
Treatment: streptomycin is first-line; can use doxy (isolate from bubo aspirates, blood, or sputum culture if pneumonic)

5

Leptospirosis: list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Presentation: Someone was swimming and eating in endemic area, like TRIATHALON; uveitis, myocarditis, vasculitis, aseptic meningitis, hepatic (jaundice), and kidney dysfunction (renal failure); have anicteric disease with acute sepsis with break before mild organ symptoms, and with icteric leptospirosis you have Weil disease (influenza-like disease with GI tract symptoms) with major organ failures; CONJUNCTIVAL SUFFUSION; high BUN, anemia, creatinine, high bilirubin, alk phos, CK
Characteristics: Leptospira interrogans (spirochete with gram-neg cell envelope)
Causes: passed to humans primarily through contaminated water or food entering abraded skin and getting to lymphatics; incubation period of week to two weeks
Treat: incubation 5-14 days; can see on darkfield and use PanBio dipstick; use penicillin with doxy as alternate and third-gen cephalosporins (could see Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
Prevention: Rodent control!! Oral doxy for prophylaxis

6

Bartonella: list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Presentation: PAPULE OR PUSTULE FORMS AT INOCULATION SITE with maybe swollen lymph node under arm; if immunocompetent, can get cat scratch, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, pericarditis, or even asymp; if immunocompromised, can get bacillary angiomatosis (THINK HIV with various swollen nodes), chronic bacteremia
Characteristics of organism: Sandfly transmission; carrying Bartonella henselae
Causes: kitten with fleas jumping around, and kitten can bite you
Vector: YES, maybe ticks

7

Pasteurella multocida: list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Presentation: cellulitis with possible bacteremia;
Cause: cat bite USUALLY
Treat: Diagnose based on culture, like wound swab or body fluid; AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANATE, with penicillin, doxy as backups

8

Capnocytophaga canimorsus: list a common presentation, types, characteristics of organism, vector/no vector, causes, treatment

Presentation: cellulitis, bacteremia/sepsis, but LOOK FOR fulminant sepsis after dog bites, especially with ASPLENIC PATIENTS, ALCOHOLICS, IMMUNOSUPPRESSED
Chacteristics: facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rod
Cause: DOG BITE OR SCRATCH usually
Treatment: Preferred is amoxicillin/clavulanate; in severe cellulitis/sepsis, use penicillin G or clindamycin