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Flashcards in Entero 3 Deck (11):
1

All vibrios are

curved, gram neg rods, all can grwo on bile salts agar in vitro (selective for SALT TOLERANCE)

2

Cholera has caused;
for epidemics there is

epidemics and pandemics throughout history, with best preventatives being hygiene (food and water purification);
modestly-effective vaccine

3

Cholera reservoirs are

humans and ocean microbial communities, primarily Indian ocean but now seen in Gulf of Mexico;
"planktonic" ocean form is source of genetic diversity

4

Cholera pathogenesis:

fecal-oral transmission, poor survival in stomach acid, so requires high infectious dose, colonizes epi of interior surface (lumen) of small intestine with mucinase and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), secretes Choleragen exotoxin enterotoxin, AB subunit signal transduction alterer that can lead to massive watery diarrhea (rice water stool), both IC and interstitial

5

Choleragen gene carried by

lysogenic bacteriophage CTX; O1 and O139 Ags are markers for infection by CTX (non-CTX V cholerae strains cause sporadic mild disease)

6

Cholera bacteremia is;
interstitial dehydration diagnosed by

rare, most morbidity and mortality from dehydration and electrolyte imbalance (acidosis, loss of K);
skin-tenting pinch test, treated with IV Lacted Ringer Solution (not just saline - acidosis)

7

What can help deal with Cholerae or parahaemolyticus?

Rehydration most important, but short course of doxycycline helps shorten the course

8

Non-cholera vibrio infections associated with; reservoir is;
complicating factors are

gastroenteritis (usually self-limited) and rapid progression cellulitis (life-threatening) from eating or handling raw shellfish;
ocean water that means they are halophiles;
liver or kidney disease, immunodeficiency, iron overload

9

Diagnose cellulitis by

exam (rapid progression, HEMORRHAGIC BULLAE, seawater-exposed injury), proceed with immediate aggressive surgical care; later, do gram stain and culture, and treat with dual antibiotics!!

BRS GAS

10

Campylobacter are;
reservoir from;
colonizes both;
complications follow;
diagnose by;
treat with

gram neg rods, microaerophilic, ubiquitous;
animals, causes diarrhea, some autoimmune complications;
intestines, destructive IC infection, bloody diarrhea;
bacteremia: Guillain-Barre, reactive arthritis, HUS, meningitis, vascular infection;
microaerophilic culture, gram stain of fecal smear, sigmoidoscopy;
rehydration, add antibiotics if high fever or predisposed to complications (immunosuppressed, pediatric, worsening)

11

H pylori is related to;
predisposes to;
diagnose by;
treat with

campylobacter, colonizes stomach, expresses urease, irritates stomach lining, attracts massive inflamm infiltrate, destroys local cells, leads to peptic uler;
gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, and infection much more common than symptoms;
scope, urea breath and/or PCR, biopsy;
combined antibiotics and PPI's