0-1 Chapter 19 the heart Flashcards Preview

2 - Keiser A&P 2 > 0-1 Chapter 19 the heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in 0-1 Chapter 19 the heart Deck (210)
Loading flashcards...
1

cardiology

the scientific study of the heart and the treatment of its disorders

2

cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

3

circulatory system

heart, blood vessels, and the blood

4

major divisions of circulatory system

pulmonary circuit
systemic circuit

5

pulmonary circuit

right side of heart
•carries blood to lungs for gas exchange and back to hear
–lesser oxygenated blood arrives from inferior and superior vena cava
–blood sent to lungs via pulmonary trunk

6

systemic circuit

left side of heart
•supplies oxygenated blood to all tissues of the body and returns it to the heart
–fully oxygenated blood arrives from lungs via pulmonary veins
–blood sent to all organs of the body via aorta

7

Heart

heart located in mediastinum, between lungs
tilted to the left

8

base

wide, superior portion of heart, blood vessels attach here

9

apex

inferior end, tilts to the left, tapers to point

10

pericardium

double-walled sac (pericardial sac) that encloses the heart
–allows heart to beat without friction, provides room to expand, yet resists excessive expansion
–anchored to diaphragm inferiorly and sternum anteriorly

11

parietal pericardium

outer wall of sac
–superficial fibrous layer of connective tissue
–a deep, thin serous layer

12

visceral pericardium

(epicardium) –heart covering
–serous lining of sac turns inward at base of heart to cover the heart surface

13

pericardial cavity

space inside the pericardial sac filled with 5 -30 mL of pericardial fluid

14

pericarditis

inflammation of the membranes
–painful friction rub with each heartbeat

15

epicardium

(visceral pericardium)
–serous membrane covering heart
–adipose in thick layer in some places
–coronary blood vessels travel through this layer

16

endocardium

–smooth inner lining of heart and blood vessels
–covers the valve surfaces and continuous with endothelium of blood vessels

17

myocardium

layer of cardiac muscle proportional to work load
•muscle spirals around heart which produces wringing motion

18

fibrous skeleton of the heart

-framework of collagenous and elastic fibers
•provides structural support and attachment for cardiac muscle and anchor for valve tissue
•electrical insulation between atria and ventricles important in timing and coordination of contractile activity

19

four chambers

right and left atria
right and left ventricles

20

right and left atria

•two superior chambers
•receive blood returning to heart
•auricles (seen on surface) enlarge chamber

21

right and left ventricles

two inferior chambers
•pump blood into arteries

22

atrioventricular sulcus

-separates atria and ventricles
-sulci contain coronary arteries

23

interventricular sulcus

-overlies the interventricular septum that divides the right ventricle from the left
-sulci contain coronary arteries

24

interatrial septum

–wall that separates atria

25

pectinate muscles

internal ridges of myocardium in right atrium

26

interventricular septum

muscular wall that separates ventricles

27

trabeculae carneae

internal ridges in both ventricles

28

Heart Valves

valves ensure a one-way flow of blood through the heart

29

atrioventricular (AV) valves

controls blood flow between atria and ventricles
–right AV valve has 3 cusps (tricuspid valve)
–left AV valve has 2 cusps (mitral or bicuspid valve)

30

chordae tendineae

cords connect AV valves to papillary muscles on floor of ventricles
•prevent AV valves from flipping inside out or bulging into the atria when the ventricles contract