0-1 chapter 18 - blood Flashcards Preview

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1

circulatory system

consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood

2

cardiovascular system

refers only to the heart and blood vessels

3

hematology

the study of blood

4

functions of circulatory system

transport
protection
Regulation

5

transport

O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and stem cells

6

protection

•inflammation, limit spread of infection, destroy microorganisms and cancer cells, neutralize toxins, and initiates clotting

7

regulation

•fluid balance, stabilizes pH of ECF, and temperature control

8

Properties of Blood

•adults have 4-6 L of blood
•a liquid connective tissue consisting of cells and extracellular matrix

9

plasma

matrix of blood
•a clear, light yellow fluid

10

formed elements

blood cells and cell fragments
•red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

11

seven kinds of formed elements

erythrocytes
platelets
leukocytes

12

erythrocytes

red blood cells (RBCs)

13

platelets

cell fragments from special cell in bone marrow

14

leukocytes-white blood cells (WBCs)
•five leukocyte types divided into two categories:

white blood cells (WBCs)
•five leukocyte types divided into two categories
-granulocytes (with granules)
-agranulocytes (without granules)

15

granulocytes

–neutrophils
–eosinophils
–basophils

16

agranulocytes

–lymphocytes
–monocytes

17

hematocrit

centrifuge blood to separate components

18

erythrocytes

are heaviest and settle first
•37% to 52% total volume

19

white blood cells and platelets

•1% total volume
•buffy coat

20

plasma

•the remainder of volume
•47% -63%
•complex mixture of water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, hormones, and gases

21

plasma

liquid portion of blood

22

serum

remaining fluid when blood clots and the solids are removed
•identical to plasma except for the absence of fibrinogen

23

3 major categories of plasma proteins

albumins
globulins
fibrinogen

24

albumins

smallest and most abundant
•contributes to viscosity and osmolarity, influences blood pressure, flow and fluid balance

25

globulins

•provide immune system functions
•alpha, beta and gamma globulins

26

fibrinogen

precursor of fibrin threads that help form blood clots

27

plasma proteins formed by

liver
–except globulins (produced by plasma cells)

28

Nonprotein Components of Plasma

nitrogenous compounds
nutrients
dissolved O2, CO2, and nitrogen
electrolytes

29

nitrogenous compounds

–free amino acids
•from dietary protein or tissue breakdown
–nitrogenous wastes (urea)
•toxic end products of catabolism
•normally removed by the kidneys

30

nutrients

–glucose, vitamins, fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, and minerals