0-1 Chapter 13 the Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 0-1 Chapter 13 the Spinal Cord Deck (134)
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1

paraplegia

paralysis of lower limbs

2

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs

3

hemiplegia

paralysis of one side of the body only

4

Functions of the Spinal Cord

conduction
locomotion
reflexes

5

central pattern generators

are pools of neurons providing control of flexors and extensors that cause alternating movements of the lower limbs

6

spinal cord

cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull

7

Number of Spinal Nerves

31 pair of spinal nerves
•first pair passes between the skull and C1
•rest pass through intervertebral foramina

8

spinal cord ends at

inferior margin ends at L1 or a little beyond
occupies the upper two-thirds of the vertebral canal

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segment

part of the spinal cord supplied by each pair of spinal nerves

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spinal cord divided into the

cervical, thoracic ,lumbar, and sacral regions

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two areas of the cord are thicker than elsewhere

•cervical enlargement –nerves to upper limb
•lumbar enlargement –nerves to pelvic region and lower limbs

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medullary cone (conus medullaris)

cord tapers to a point inferior to lumbar enlargement

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cauda equina

bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5

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meninges

three fibrous connective tissue membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord
–separate soft tissue of central nervous system from bones of cranium and vertebral canal

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Meninges of the Spinal Cord
from superficial to deep

dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater

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dura mater

–forms loose-fitting sleeve around spinal cord –dural sheath
–tough, collagenous membrane surrounded by

17

arachnoid mater

arachnoid membrane
subarachnoid space

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arachnoid membrane

layer of simple squamous epithelium lining dura mater and a loose mesh of collagenous and elastic fibersspanning the gap between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater

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subarachnoid space

gap between arachnoid membrane and the pia mater
•filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

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lumbar cistern

subarachnoid space inferior to medullary cone that contains cauda equina and CSF

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pia mater

–delicate, translucent membrane that follows the contours of the spinal cord

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terminal filum

fibrous strand of pia mater that extends beyond the medullary cone within the lumbar cistern

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coccygeal ligament

formed from fusion of terminal filum and dura mater
•anchors the cord and meninges to vertebra Co1

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denticulate ligaments

extend through the arachnoid to the dura
•anchors spinal cord to limit side to side movement

25

spina bifida

congenital defect in which one or more vertebrae fail to form a complete vertebral arch for enclosure of the spinal cord
–in 1 baby out of 1000
–common in lumbosacral region

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folic acid

(a B vitamin) as part of a healthy diet for all women of childbearing age reduces risk

27

gray matter

neuron cell bodies with little myelin
–site of information processing –synaptic integration

28

white matter –

abundantly myelinated axons
–carry signals from one part of the CNS to another

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Gray Matter in the Spinal Cord

spinal cord has a central core of gray matter that looks like a butterfly-or H-shaped in cross section

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posterior (dorsal) root of spinal nerve carries only

sensory fibers