0-1 Chapter 14 Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 0-1 Chapter 14 Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (185)
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rostral

toward the forehead

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caudal

toward the spinal cord

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three major portions of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

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cerebrum

cerebrum is 83% of brain volume; cerebral hemispheres, gyri and sulci, longitudinal fissure, corpus callosum

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cerebellum

cerebellum contains 50% of the neurons; second largest brain region, located in posterior cranial fossa

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brainstem

brainstem the portion of the brain that remains if the cerebrum and cerebellum are removed; diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

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Cerebrum

longitudinal fissure

deep groove that separates cerebral hemispheres

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Cerebrum
gyri

thick folds

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Cerebrum
sulci

shallow grooves

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Cerebrum
corpus callosum

thick nerve bundle at bottom of longitudinal fissure that connects hemispheres

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Cerebellum

about 10% of brain volume
•contains over 50% of brain neurons
•marked by gyri, sulci, and fissures

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Cerebellum

occupies

occupies posterior cranial fossa

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brainstem

what remains of the brain if the cerebrum and cerebellum are removed

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major components


–midbrain
–pons
–medulla oblongata

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gray matter

the seat of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses
–dull white color when fresh, due to little myelin
–forms surface layer, cortex, over cerebrum and cerebellum
–forms nuclei deep within brain

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white matter

bundles of axons
–lies deep to cortical gray matter, opposite relationship in the spinal cord
–pearly white color from myelin around nerve fibers
–composed of tracts, bundles of axons, that connect one part of the brain to another, and to the spinal cord

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meninges

three connective tissue membranes that envelop the brain
–lies between the nervous tissue and bone
–as in spinal cord, they are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and the pia mater
–protect the brain and provide structural framework for its arteries and veins

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dura mater

in cranial cavity -2 layers

•outer periosteal
•inner meningeal

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outer periosteal

equivalent to periosteum of cranial bones

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inner meningeal

continues into vertebral canal and forms dural sac around spinal cord

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cranial dura mater is pressed closely against

cranial bones
•no epidural space
•not attached to bone except: around foramen magnum, sella turcica, the cristagalli, and sutures of the skull
•layers separated by dural sinuses –collect blood circulating through brain

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dura mater

folds inward to extend between parts of the brain

•falx cerebri
•tentorium cerebelli
•falx cerebelli

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falx cerebri

separates the two cerebral hemispheres

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tentorium cerebelli

separates cerebrum from cerebellum

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falx cerebelli

separates the right and left halves of cerebellum

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arachnoid mater

–transparent membrane over brain surface
–subarachnoid space separates it from pia mater below
–subdural space separates it from dura mater above in some places

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pia mater

–very thin membrane that follows contours of brain, even dipping into sulci
–not usually visible without a microscope

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meningitis

inflammation of the meninges
–serious disease of infancy & childhood
–especially between 3 months and 2 years of age
•caused by bacterial and virus invasion of the CNS by way of the nose and throat
•pia mater and arachnoid are most often affected

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bacterial meningitis

can cause swelling the brain, enlarging the ventricles, and hemorrhage

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ventricles

four internal chambers within the brain