0-1 Chapter 23 Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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1

urinary system

principal means of waste removal

2

kidney functions

regulate blood volume and pressure, erythrocyte count, blood gases, blood pH, and electrolyte and acid base balance, eliminates wastes

3

urologists

treat both urinary and reproductive disorders

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urinary system consists of 6 organs

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

5

Kidney

Secrete

secretes enzyme, renin, which activates hormonal mechanisms that control blood pressure and electrolyte balance
•secretes the hormone, erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells
•final step in synthesizing hormone, calcitriol, which contributes to calcium homeostasis

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waste

any substance that is useless to the body or present in excess of the body‟s needs

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metabolic waste

waste substance produced by the body

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urea formation

-proteins
-amino acids
-NH2 removed
-forms ammonia
- liver converts to urea

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uric acid

product of nucleic acid catabolism

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blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

expression of the level of nitrogenous waste in the blood

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azotemia

elevated BUN
•indicates renal insufficiency

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uremia

syndrome of diarrhea, vomiting, dyspnea, and cardiac arrhythmia stemming from the toxicity of nitrogenous waste

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excretion

separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them

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four body systems carry out excretion

respiratory system
integumentary system
digestive system
urinary system

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respiratory system

CO2, small amounts of other gases, and water

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integumentary system

water, inorganic salts, lactic acid, urea in sweat

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digestive system

water, salts, CO2, lipids, bile pigments, cholesterol, other metabolic waste, and food residue

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urinary system

many metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, H+ and water

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Kidney

location

retroperitoneal along with ureters, urinary bladder, renal artery and vein, and adrenal glands

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three protective connective tissue coverings

renal fascia
perirenal fat capsule
fibrous capsule

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renal parenchyma

glandular tissue that forms urine
–appears C-shaped in frontal section
–encircles the renal sinus

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renal sinus

contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, and urine-collecting structures
•adipose fills the remaining cavity and holds structures into place

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two zones of renal parenchyma

outer renal cortex
inner renal medulla

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inner renal medulla

•renal columns –extensions of the cortex that project inward toward sinus
•renal pyramids –6 to 10 with broad base facing cortex and renal papilla facing sinus

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lobe of the kidney

one pyramid and its overlying cortex

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minor calyx

cup that nestles the papilla of each pyramid
•collects its urine

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major calyces

formed by convergence of two or three minor calyces

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renal pelvis

formed by convergence of two or three major calyces

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ureter begins at

renal pelvis

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ureter

a tubular continuation of the pelvis and drains the urine down to the urinary bladder