What does the work anatomy derived from the Greek work Temnein mean?
What are the two systemic approaches for Anatomy?
Regional anatomy: a method of studying the body by region ie thorax, abdomen etc
Systemic anatomy: a method of studying the body by systems ie circulatory system, respiratory system etc
what is the anatomical position used for?
reference when describing parts of the body in a universal standard
Name 5 types of position that the body can be in and still maintain anatomical position?
standing, lying down, supine, prone, sidelying
name 5 factors that add up to anatomical position
-head, eyes, toes foward
-arms by the side
-palms facing forward
What does the frontal or coronal plane seperate the body into?
anterior and posterior parts
What does the median or midsagittal plane seperate the body into?
Right and left parts
what does the horizontal planes separate the body into?
superior and inferior parts
What does Rostral mean?
towards the "beak" opposite of the "caudal" of the head aka towards the back of the head
how many degrees of freedom does circumduction have?
3 degrees of freedom
Thumb towards the midline of the palm is known as what?
What is the opposite of opposition?
What is Thumb to pinky?
three degrees of freedom: opposition, flexion, abduction
In the feet, when there is pronation and supination what part of the feet is changing direction?
The arch of the feet
What are the three parts of supination of the feet
plantar flex, adduction, and inversion
What is the three parts of the feet pronation.
Dorsal flexation, abduction, eversion
Scapular adduction is the same as scapular_________
Scapular abduction is the same as scapular________.
When opposition happens the metacarples are rotating in what plane?
What is an important reason for knowing anatomical landmarks?
for frame of reference
When the head is in protrusion, what is the upper cervical and lower cervical doing?
the upper is extended
the lower is in flexion
When the head is in Retraction what is the upper and lower cervical doing?
upper is in flexion
lower is in extension
What is Wolff's Law and how is it used in PT?
Dr. Wolff said development in the bony skeleton the more external force that is applied makes it more prone to develop thicker and bigger bony parts
What does shoulder elevation mean?
the gross term says that it is any upward movement of the shoulder
name 3 types of shoulder elevation
What are the 9 abdominopelvic regions right upper right to lower left
Right hypocondriac region, Epigastric, left hypocondriac
Right lumbar, umbicial, left lumbar region
Right inguinal, hypogastric aka pubic, left inguinal region
Fill in the blank
Fill in the blank
What fluid is found in the lung?
Surfactin to reduce surface tension and destick the humid air
Serius membranes has fluid, what are the two layers which is close to the organ and which is further?
visceral is attached to the organ
parietal is more superficial
In the pericardium there is a serius membrane with fluid, what is it's function?
to lubicate the heart and also to keep it cool
What is the two parts of the Integumentary system?
What makes up the Cutaneous membrane(2)?
name three accessory structures?
What is the largest sensory organ?
the integumentary system
name some functions of the skin
-Protect the inner tissues and organs
-Excretes: salt water water etc
-synthesizes vit D
- Stores lipids
what is Lines of Cleave also known as?
In the body where is there keratin (2)?
What two things are arranged in parallel bundles in the Langer lines?
Collagen and Elastic fiber
they resist force in a specific direction
What is Collagen?
it is a saffolding
What is the duty of Elastic Fibers?
ability to recoil after being stretched out
What are the two divisions of the skeletal system?
What does compliant mean?
the ability for a elastic fiber to return to orginal form
What are the two components that composes the skeletal system?
cartilage and bones
What does brachium region mean in latin?
The humeral area is technically called what?
Thigh plus leg equals what?
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
-storage of calcium and phosphorus
-blood cell production in the marrow
-leverage for motion
What are bones identified by?
What are the shapes of bones?
Sesamoid bone ie petalla (aka floating bone)
What is a sesamoid bone and name some
floating bone inbedded in a sea of tendons
what is Diaphysis
wide part of each end
articulating with the other bones
where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
What is Cortical bone vs trabeculae
cortical bone= dense
What happens with long bone before and during puberty?
Epiphyseal cartilage disappears and the changes are visible on the x-rays as an apiphyseal line
What is Mesenchyme?
embryonic connective tissue during bone develoment
What are the two forms of bone development?
What Intramembranous bone development?
Mesencyhmal scaffolding of bone forms during embyonic period(first 8 weeks) and Ossifies directly to bone during the fetal period (end of 8 weeks until birth)
What is Endochondral bone development?
Cartilagenous scaffolding of bone forms during the fetal period and may continue to ossify into later puberty/early adulthood
What does mesenchymal cells differentiate into and form what?
and then forms into cartilagenous framework
Where is the primary ossification center? when periostial capillaries become impregnated withing developing bone?
What is the secondary ossification center?
What is the epiphses fed by?
What is the growth plates called and complete ossifies here and then ceases growth
Most of the nerves that enter with arteries are ______ having few sensory nerve fibers.
The bone is supplied with numerous sensory nerves fibers therefore?
has a pain sensitivity
Name the two major sets of blood vessels related to bone?
What is Metaphyseal vessles?
where bone growth occurs
supply the epiphyseal cartilage/secondary ossification centers
What does Periosteal vessels provide?
Provides blodo to superficial osteons
its a primary ossification centers
Where in the bone is there a network of lymphatics?
in the periosteum
noseoceptors what is it?
What is a cartilage?
Cartilage is an Avascular form of Connective Tissue
How many types of Cartilage are there?
What are the three types of Cartilage?
What are some unque features of Hyaline Cartilage?
-Their matrix contains a moderate amount of Collagen fibers
-are present in Articular Surfaces
What is unique about Elastic Cartilage?
-Matrix contains Collagen Fibers with Large Elastic Fibers
-found External Eat
What is unique to Fibrocartilage Cartilage?
- Matrix contains a small number of cells but has a big amout of collagen fibers
-located in IV disc
What are Articulation Joints?
Articulation joints are joints where there are union of bone
What are the three types of Articulation Joints?
-Synarthrosis (Fibrous) Joint
-Amphiarthrosis (Cartilagenous) Joint
-Diarthrosis (Synovial) Joint
What is Synarthrosis (Fibrous)Joint?
It is an Articulation joint that is joined by Fibrous Connective Tissue
What is an Amphiathrosis (Cartilagenous) joint?
An articulation joint that is joined by Cartilage
What is Diarthrosis (Synovial) Joint?
Articulation Joint CAPSULE that is lined with Synovial membrane
Articulations: Synarthroses (Fibrous ) Joints, what are they and how many subdivision are there?
Synarthroses (fibrous) joint are immoveable joints and can be subdived into 3 types
What are the 3 subdivision of Synarthroses joint aka Fibrous joint?
What is Gomphosis?
It is an Articulation, Synarthroses immovable joint
-pertains to joints found between the teeth and the mandible/maxilla
What is a Suture?
Articulation, Synarthroses an immovable joint
-refers to joints between bones that have fused
-FONTANELS= spaces between flat bones of the skull during infancy that fuse together as sutures when it matures
What is a Syndesmosis?
Articulation, Synarthroses immovable joint
-these joints are joined by an INTERosseous membrane between the Radius/Ulna, Tib/Fib, and select ares of the Sacroiliac Joint.
-helps maintain bones in a certain position
What is Amphiarthroses joints aka Cartilagenous joint
Amphiarthoses are articulants that are semi-movable joints that can be subdivided into 2 categories
What are the two types of Amphiarthoses aka Cartilagenous joints?
Primary cartilagenous (Synchondrosis)
Secondary cartilagenous (Symphysis)
What is the Primary Cartilagenous?
aka Synchondrosis joint
-joint surfaces are primarily joined by Hyaline Cartilage
located in: Costochondral joints and the costo
sternal joints of the 1st, 6th, and 7th ribs
What is the Secondary Cartilagenous?
aka Symphysis joint
-joint surfaces that are covered with a thin layer of Hyaline Cartilage and joined by Fibrocartilage in the form of the disks or pads
located in: Intervertebral joint, manubriosternal joint, symphysis pubis
What is Diarthroses aka? and what to all Diarthroses have(4) and some have this one feature(1)?
aka Synovial Joint
1- Hyaline cartilage- lines the ends of the joining bones
2- Liagements(for bone to bone)- which appy static support to the joint
3- Fibrous Joint Capsule surrounding the joint
4- Synovial membrane- it lines the joint capsule
(some) secondary support structures made of Fibrocartilage (Menisci, Labrum, Disks, Palmar/Plantar plates)
What are some secondary support structures and what are they composed of?
they are composed of Fibrocartilage
What are some functions for the Joint capsule?
-Synovial fluid helps with movement
-synovial fluid- helps with nutrients to avascular cartialge
There are 6 subdivision of the Synovial Joint aka Diarthroses joint. what are they?
-Gliding/Plane ie AC joint
-Hinge ie elbow joint
-Pivot ie AA joint
-Condyloid ie MCP joint
-Saddle ie 1st CMC joint
- Ball and socket ie hip and shoulder has 3 degrees of freedom
What does degrees of freedom mean?
how many planes are being crossed
In a synovial membrane what causes more synovial fluid to be produced?
movement promotes more synovial fluid to be produced
What are some function of the Synovial fluid?
-nutrients to be sent to the carilage since they are avascular
There are three ways of describing the Synovial Joints based on movement what are the three ways?
1- Uniaxial= 1 DOF ie flexion/extension at elbow joint
2-Biaxial= 2 DOF ie flexion/extension and abduction/add at MCP joint
3- Multiaxial= 3 DOF ie flex/ex, abd/add, and IR/ER at shoulder joint
What are the three types of Muscle Tissue?
Name the unique factors of the Cardiac Muscle (4).
2- Found in the Heart
3- Multinucleus and striated
4- Interlocking fibers to allow to self proprigate electrical signals
Name unique factors of the smooth muscle.
2- found in the blood vessels, GI Tract
What is unique about the skeletal muscle.
3- Produces skeletal movement
4- maintain body position
5- support soft tissue
6- Guard body openings
7- maintain body temperature
Where does it tell you the function of the muscle?
The location where the muscle crosses in a joint
What are the four basic patterns of Fascicle organization?
Why is the Pennate skeletal muscles in the oblique shape that they are in?
It allows for more muscle fibers to fit in the same area and therefore resulting in more force
What is unique about convergent muscle?
It has multiple functions
IN microscopic myofilament overlap what are the two parts that overlap?
Actin and Myosin
When in the myofilament sliding theory is there tension produced?
when the Myosin head binds with the active site on actin to produce a "corss bridge"
What is a functional muscle unit called?
What additional action wil take place to increase the already overlap of myofilaments?
The Myosin head will rotate
The process of sliding myofilament will _____________ as long as the muscular activity is sustained.
What are the three types of Muscle contractions?
Out of the three types of muscle contractions what can every muscle be (2 out of the 3)?
Every muscle can be Concentrict and Eccentric
What is Isometric muscle contraction?
When there is Acting and Myosin coupling with no movements
What is concentric muscle contractions?
The muscle is shortened
An example is when the elbow joint is flexed or extended
What is Eccentric muscle contractions?
When muscle is used to decelerate a body part
ie slowing down after running
ie slowly lowering the arm
ie parts of walking
Fill in these blanks:
Types of muscle fibers are:
Type I: _______ _______ _________
Type II A: _______ ________ _______ ________
Type II B: _______ ______ ________
Type I: Slow Twitch Oxidative
Type II A: Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolytic
Type II B: Fast Twitch Glycolytic
What are the 4 types of Blood Vessels?
2- Veins/ Venuoles
3- Capillary Bed
What are the three blood vessel layers starting from most superficial to deep
What is Anastomosis blood vessels?
They are a network of the same kind (vein & vein, or artery & artery) and they are in a path of multiple parallel sets to ensure a path even with one being obstructed
What happens in a Capillary Bed?
Gaseous exchange and nutrient exchange
Name some facts about Arteries/Arterioles.
1- Oxygen rich except in Pulmonary Artery
2- Away from the heart
3- Larger diameter
What does the vein lack that causes them to appear purple or blue?
Smooth muscle particularly Tunica Media
What color is Tunica media?
What is the hole deep to Tunica intima in blood vessle called?
What are the three parts of Nervous system?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
What constitutes as CNS?
What are the two parts of Autonomic Nervous Systema and describe them.
Sympathetic- Fight or Flight
Parasympathetic- Rest and Digest
What does a bundle of nerves look like?