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Flashcards in 0- Gross Anatomy Intro. Deck (133):
1

What does the work anatomy derived from the Greek work Temnein mean?

To cut 

2

What are the two systemic approaches for Anatomy?

Regional anatomy: a method of studying the body by region ie thorax, abdomen etc

Systemic anatomy: a method of studying the body by systems ie circulatory system, respiratory system etc

3

what is the anatomical position used for?

reference when describing parts of the body in a universal standard

4

Name 5 types of position that the body can be in and still maintain anatomical position?

standing, lying down, supine, prone, sidelying

5

name 5 factors that add up to anatomical position

-standing erect

-head, eyes, toes foward

-feet together

-arms by the side

-palms facing forward

 

6

What does the frontal or coronal plane seperate the body into?

anterior and posterior parts

7

What does the median or midsagittal plane seperate the body into?

Right and left parts

8

what does the horizontal planes separate the body into?

superior and inferior parts

9

What does Rostral mean?

towards the "beak" opposite of the "caudal" of the head aka towards the back of the head

10

how many degrees of freedom does circumduction have?

3 degrees of freedom

11

Thumb towards the midline of the palm is known as what?

Opposition

12

What is the opposite of opposition?

Reprosition

13

What is Thumb to pinky?

three degrees of freedom: opposition, flexion, abduction

14

In the feet, when there is pronation and supination what part of the feet is changing direction?

The arch of the feet

15

What are the three parts of supination of the feet

plantar flex, adduction, and inversion

PADI

16

What is the three parts of the feet pronation.

Dorsal flexation, abduction, eversion

DABE

17

Scapular adduction is the same as scapular_________

retraction

18

Scapular abduction is the same as scapular________.

Protraction

19

When opposition happens the metacarples are rotating in what plane?

Transverse plane

20

What is an important reason for knowing anatomical landmarks?

for frame of reference

21

When the head is in protrusion, what is the upper cervical and lower cervical doing?

the upper is extended 

and

the lower is in flexion

22

When the head is in Retraction what is the upper and lower cervical doing?

upper is in flexion

and

lower is in extension

23

What is Wolff's Law and how is it used in PT?

Dr. Wolff said development in the bony skeleton the more external force that is applied makes it more prone to develop thicker and bigger bony parts

24

What does shoulder elevation mean?

the gross term says that it is any upward movement of the shoulder

25

name 3 types of shoulder elevation

shoulder abduction

shoulder flexion 

scaption

26

What are the 9 abdominopelvic regions right upper right to lower left

Right hypocondriac region, Epigastric, left hypocondriac

Right lumbar, umbicial, left lumbar region

Right inguinal, hypogastric aka pubic, left inguinal region

27

Fill in the blank

Q image thumb

A image thumb
28

Fill in the blank

Q image thumb

A image thumb
29

What fluid is found in the lung?

Surfactin to reduce surface tension and destick the humid air 

30

Serius membranes has fluid, what are the two layers which is close to the organ and which is further?

visceral is attached to the organ 

parietal is more superficial

31

In the pericardium there is a serius membrane with fluid, what is it's function?

to lubicate the heart and also to keep it cool

32

What is the two parts of the Integumentary system?

Cutaneous membrane

and

Accessory structures

33

What makes up the Cutaneous membrane(2)?

epidermis

and

dermis

34

name three accessory structures?

-hair

-nails

-exocrine glands

-sebaceous glands

35

What is the largest sensory organ?

the integumentary system

36

name some functions of the skin

-Protect the inner tissues and organs

-Excretes: salt water water etc

-maintains temperature

-synthesizes vit D

- Stores lipids

-Detect senses 

37

what is Lines of Cleave also known as?

Langer Lines

38

In the body where is there keratin (2)?

nail hair

39

What two things are arranged in parallel bundles in the Langer lines?

Collagen and Elastic fiber

they resist force in a specific direction

40

What is Collagen?

it is a saffolding 

41

What is the duty of Elastic Fibers?

ability to recoil after being stretched out

42

What are the two divisions of the skeletal system?

Axial

Appendicular

43

What does compliant mean?

the ability for a elastic fiber to return to orginal form

44

What are the two components that composes the skeletal system?

cartilage and bones

45

What does brachium region mean in latin?

arm

46

The humeral area is technically called what?

the arm

47

Thigh plus leg equals what?

LE

48

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

support

-storage of calcium and phosphorus

-blood cell production in the marrow

-Protection

-leverage for motion

49

What are bones identified by?

Shape

50

What are the shapes of bones?

Long bone

Flat bone

Irregular

Short bone

Sesamoid bone ie petalla (aka floating bone)

51

What is a sesamoid bone and name some

floating bone inbedded in a sea of tendons

patella

and

hyoid

52

what is Diaphysis

yellow marrow

the shaft

compact bone

53

Epiphysis

Red marrow

wide part of each end

spongy bone

articulating with the other bones

54

Metaphysis

where diaphysis and epiphysis meet

55

What is Cortical bone vs trabeculae

cortical bone= dense

trabeculae=spongy

56

What happens with long bone before and during puberty?

Epiphyseal cartilage disappears and the changes are visible on the x-rays as an apiphyseal line

57

What is Mesenchyme?

embryonic connective tissue during bone develoment

58

What are the two forms of bone development?

Intramembranous Ossification

Endochondral ossification

59

What Intramembranous bone development?

Mesencyhmal scaffolding of bone forms during embyonic period(first 8 weeks) and Ossifies directly to bone during the fetal period (end of 8 weeks until birth)

60

What is Endochondral bone development?

Cartilagenous scaffolding of bone forms during the fetal period and may continue to ossify into later puberty/early adulthood

61

What does mesenchymal cells differentiate into and form what?

Chondroblasts 

and then forms into cartilagenous framework

62

Where is the primary ossification center? when periostial capillaries become impregnated withing developing bone?

Diaphysis

63

What is the secondary ossification center?

Epiphyses

64

What is the epiphses fed by?

epiphyseal arteries 

65

What is the growth plates called and complete ossifies here and then ceases growth

Epiphyseal

66

Most of the nerves that enter with arteries are ______ having few sensory nerve fibers.

vasomotor

67

The bone is supplied with numerous sensory nerves fibers therefore?

has a pain sensitivity

68

Name the two major sets of blood vessels related to bone?

Metaphyseal vessels

and

periosteal vessels

 

69

What is Metaphyseal vessles?

where bone growth occurs 

and

supply the epiphyseal cartilage/secondary ossification centers 

70

What does Periosteal vessels provide?

Provides blodo to superficial osteons

and

its a primary ossification centers

71

Where in the bone is there a network of lymphatics?

in the periosteum

72

noseoceptors what is it?

pain receptors

73

What is a cartilage?

Cartilage is an Avascular form of Connective Tissue

74

How many types of Cartilage are there?

three

75

What are the three types of Cartilage? 

1- Hyaline

2- Elastic

3- Fibrocartilage

76

What are some unque features of Hyaline Cartilage?

-Most common

-Their matrix contains a moderate amount of Collagen fibers

-are present in Articular Surfaces

77

What is unique about Elastic Cartilage?

-Matrix contains Collagen Fibers with Large Elastic Fibers

-found External Eat

78

What is unique to Fibrocartilage Cartilage?

- Matrix contains a small number of cells but has a big amout of collagen fibers

-located in IV disc

79

What are Articulation Joints?

Articulation joints are joints where there are union of bone

80

What are the three types of Articulation Joints?

-Synarthrosis (Fibrous) Joint

-Amphiarthrosis (Cartilagenous) Joint

-Diarthrosis (Synovial) Joint

81

What is Synarthrosis (Fibrous)Joint?

It is an Articulation joint that is joined by Fibrous Connective Tissue

82

What is an Amphiathrosis (Cartilagenous) joint?

An articulation joint that is joined by Cartilage

83

What is Diarthrosis (Synovial) Joint?

Articulation Joint CAPSULE that is lined with Synovial membrane

84

Articulations: Synarthroses (Fibrous ) Joints, what are they and how many subdivision are there?

Synarthroses (fibrous) joint are immoveable joints and can be subdived into 3 types

85

What are the 3 subdivision of Synarthroses joint aka Fibrous joint?

1- Gomphosis

2- Suture

3- Syndesmosis

86

What is Gomphosis?

It is an Articulation, Synarthroses immovable joint

-pertains to joints found between the teeth and the mandible/maxilla

87

What is a Suture?

Articulation, Synarthroses an immovable joint

-refers to joints between bones that have fused

-FONTANELS= spaces between flat bones of the skull during infancy that fuse together as sutures when it matures

88

What is a Syndesmosis?

Articulation, Synarthroses immovable joint

-these joints are joined by an INTERosseous membrane between the Radius/Ulna, Tib/Fib, and select ares of the Sacroiliac Joint.

-helps maintain bones in a certain position

89

What is Amphiarthroses joints aka Cartilagenous joint

Amphiarthoses are articulants that are semi-movable joints that can be subdivided into 2 categories

90

What are the two types of Amphiarthoses aka Cartilagenous joints?

Primary cartilagenous (Synchondrosis)

and

Secondary cartilagenous (Symphysis)

91

What is the Primary Cartilagenous?

aka Synchondrosis joint 

-joint surfaces are primarily joined by Hyaline Cartilage

located in: Costochondral joints and the costo

sternal joints of the 1st, 6th, and 7th ribs

92

What is the Secondary Cartilagenous?

aka Symphysis joint

-joint surfaces that are covered with a thin layer of Hyaline Cartilage and joined by Fibrocartilage in the form of the disks or pads

located in: Intervertebral joint, manubriosternal joint, symphysis pubis

93

What is Diarthroses aka? and what to all Diarthroses have(4) and some have this one feature(1)?

aka Synovial Joint

1- Hyaline cartilage- lines the ends of the joining bones

2- Liagements(for bone to bone)- which appy static support to the joint

3- Fibrous Joint Capsule surrounding the joint

4- Synovial membrane- it lines the joint capsule

(some) secondary support structures made of Fibrocartilage (Menisci, Labrum, Disks, Palmar/Plantar plates)

94

What are some secondary support structures and what are they composed of?

Menisci

Labrum

Disks

Palmar plates

plantar  plates

they are composed of Fibrocartilage

95

What are some functions for the Joint capsule?

-Synovial fluid helps with movement

-synovial fluid- helps with nutrients to avascular cartialge

-reduces friction

96

There are 6 subdivision of the Synovial Joint aka Diarthroses joint. what are they?

-Gliding/Plane ie AC joint

-Hinge ie elbow joint

-Pivot ie AA joint

-Condyloid ie MCP joint

-Saddle ie 1st CMC joint

- Ball and socket ie hip and shoulder has 3 degrees of freedom

97

What does degrees of freedom mean?

how many planes are being crossed

98

In a synovial membrane what causes more synovial fluid to be produced?

movement promotes more synovial fluid to be produced

99

What are some function of the Synovial fluid?

-lubrication

-nutrients to be sent to the carilage since they are avascular

-reduced friction

100

There are three ways of describing the Synovial Joints based on movement what are the three ways?

1- Uniaxial= 1 DOF ie flexion/extension at elbow joint

2-Biaxial= 2 DOF ie flexion/extension and abduction/add at MCP joint 

3- Multiaxial= 3 DOF ie flex/ex, abd/add, and IR/ER at shoulder joint

101

Label

Q image thumb

A image thumb
102

What are the three types of Muscle Tissue?

Cardiac

Smooth

Skeletal

103

Name the unique factors of the Cardiac Muscle (4).

1- Non-voluntary

2- Found in the Heart

3- Multinucleus and striated

4- Interlocking fibers to allow to self proprigate electrical signals

104

Name unique factors of the smooth muscle.

1- non-voluntary

2- found in the blood vessels, GI Tract

3- Visceral

105

What is unique about the skeletal muscle.

1- Voluntary

2- Striated

3- Produces skeletal movement

4- maintain body position

5- support soft tissue

6- Guard body openings

7- maintain body temperature 

106

Where does it tell you the function of the muscle?

The location where the muscle crosses in a joint

107

What are the four basic patterns of Fascicle organization?

1- Parallel

2- Convergent

3- Pennate

4- Circular

108

Why is the Pennate skeletal muscles in the oblique shape that they are in?

It allows for more muscle fibers to fit in the same area and therefore resulting in more force

109

What is unique about convergent muscle?

It has multiple functions

110

IN microscopic myofilament overlap what are the two parts that overlap?

Actin and Myosin

111

When in the myofilament sliding theory is there tension produced?

when the Myosin head binds with the active site on actin to produce a "corss bridge"

112

What is a functional muscle unit called?

Sarcomere

113

What additional action wil take place to increase the already overlap of myofilaments?

The Myosin head will rotate

114

The process of sliding myofilament will _____________ as long as the muscular activity is sustained.

repeat

115

What are the three types of Muscle contractions?

1- Isometric

2- Concentric

3- Eccentric

116

Out of the three types of muscle contractions what can every muscle be (2 out of the 3)?

Every muscle can be Concentrict and Eccentric

117

What is Isometric muscle contraction?

When there is Acting and Myosin coupling with no movements

118

What is concentric muscle contractions?

The muscle is shortened

An example is when the elbow joint is flexed or extended

119

What is Eccentric muscle contractions?

When muscle is used to decelerate a body part

ie slowing down after running

ie slowly lowering the arm 

ie parts of walking

120

Fill in these blanks:

Types of muscle fibers are:

Type I: _______ _______ _________

Type II A: _______ ________ _______ ________

Type II B: _______ ______ ________

Type I: Slow Twitch Oxidative

Type II A: Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolytic

Type II B: Fast Twitch Glycolytic

121

What are the 4 types of Blood Vessels?

1- Arteries/Arterioles

2- Veins/ Venuoles

3- Capillary Bed

4- Anastomosis

122

What are the three blood vessel layers starting from most superficial to deep

Tunica Externa

Tunica Media

Tunica Intima

123

What is Anastomosis blood vessels?

They are a network of the same kind (vein & vein, or artery & artery) and they are in a path of multiple parallel sets to ensure a path even with one being obstructed

124

What happens in a Capillary Bed?

Gaseous exchange and nutrient exchange

125

Name some facts about Arteries/Arterioles.

1- Oxygen rich except in Pulmonary Artery

2- Away from the heart

3- Larger diameter

126

What does the vein lack that causes them to appear purple or blue?

Smooth muscle particularly Tunica Media

127

What color is Tunica media?

Pink/White

128

What is the hole deep to Tunica intima in blood vessle called? 

Lumen

129

What are the three parts of Nervous system?

Central Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

130

What constitutes as CNS?

Brain

and

Spinal Cord

131

What are the two parts of Autonomic Nervous Systema and describe them.

Sympathetic- Fight or Flight

Parasympathetic- Rest and Digest

132

What does a bundle of nerves look like?

Striated

133