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Flashcards in 1- Back Review Deck (247):
1

How many separate vertebrae make up the vertebral column?

24

2

Of the 24 separate vertebrae; they are split into 3 regions. What are the regions and how many vertebrae are in each regions

Cervical: 7 Thoracic: 12 Lumbar: 5

3

The base of the spine is composed of 5 segments fused together, this is known as the what?

Sacrum

4

What structure articulates with the 2 annominate bones of the pelvis

Sacrum

5

These vertebrae articulate with the ribs.

Thoracic

6

What are the normal curves of the spine?

Cervical Lordosis Thoracic Kyphosis Lumbar Lordosis

7

These intervertebral structures provide shock absorbance, congruency and a supply of nutrients.

IV Disc: Intervertebral Disc

8

A spinal segment ( ie L2-L3) consists of what? how many vertebrae and IV disc and how many end plate

2 vertebrae and 1 IV Disc and 2 end plates one above and one below

9

Anteriorly in vertebrae, this cylindrical mass of the bone is known as the

Body of the vertebrae

10

What does the body of the vertebrae act as?

Support the weight of the segments above it

11

The 3 bony projections of a vertebrae are:

Transverse processes, spinous process, and articular processes aka facet joints

12

When the articular processes of vertebrae join, they form this synovial joint.

Facet joint or zygopophaseal joint

13

Head rotation occurs primarily where?

Upper CS, C1-C2 (Altlanto-Axial Joint)

14

Head flexion, extension and lateral flexion primarily occurs where?

Upper CS, Occipital-Atlas (Atlanto-Occipital Joint)

15

Cervical Spine rotation primarily occurs in this general area.

Upper Cervical Spine

16

Cervical Spine extension, lateral flexion, flexion primarily occurs in what general area?

Mid to lower Cervical Spine

17

When the head protrusion occurs, the upper cervical spine ______ and the lower cervical spine______

extends, flexes

18

When the head retraction occurs, the upper cervical spine ________ and the lower cervical spine _______

Flexes, extends

19

The spine in anatomy is know as the _________ _________ and/or _________ ___________

spinal column

and/or

vertebral column

20

Consists of how many separate vertebrae?

this included the fused sacrum and coccyx

24 separate vertebrae

21

Name all the vertebrae regions and  How many of each segments in the vertebrae

7- Cervical 

12- Thoracic

5- Lumbar

5- Fused sacral 

3-4- fused coccygeal 

22

What are the motions that occur in the spine?

Flexion/Extension

Sidebending

Rotation

***at each regions there are different quantities of motion

23

Name the two normal curvatures of the spine and breif description

Lordosis- concave posteriorly

 

Kyphosis- convex posteriorly

24

Where is Lordosis and Kyphosis located in the vertebral column

Cervical/Lumbar- Lordosis

Thoracic/Sacral/Coccygeal- Kyphosis

25

Lateral curvature of the spine is known as.

Scoliosis

26

The highest cervical vertebra articulates with the ___________ ___________ of the cranium

Occipital condyles

27

The _______ vertebrae articulate with the ribs

thoracic

28

the ___________ vertebrae are designed for extensive weight bearing and muscle attachment

Lumbar

29

The __________ articulates with the _____(#) innominate bones at the sacro-iliac joints to form the pelvis

Sacrum

2#

30

All vertebrae from _____ to _____ will possess common elements of a vertebrae

C2 to L5

31

LABEL this Common Vertebrae

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A- Vertebral Body

B- Pedicle

C- Lamina

D- Vertebral Arch

E- Articular Process

F- Transverse Process

G- Spinous Process

H- Inferior Articular Process

32

Label the Sacrum (ant.)

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A- Promotontary

B- Superior Articular Process

C- Wing of Sacrum

D- Lateral Part

E- Transverse Line

F- Sacrococcygeal Joint

G- Anterior Sacral Foramina

H- Apex of Sacrum

I- Coccyx

33

Label the Sacrum (pos.) 

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A-Sacral Canal

B- Superior Articular Facet

C- Sacral Tuberosity

D- Auricular Surface

E- Lateral Sacral Crest

F- Median Sacral Crest

G- Medial Sacral Crest

H- Sacral Hiatus

I- Sacral Cornua

J- Sacrococcygeal Joint

K- Coccyx

L- Coccygeal Cornu

M- Posterior Sacral Foramina

N- Lateral Part

34

The Sacrum will articulate the Right Innominate with the _______ ________

Auricular Surface

35

Iliac Tuberosity is an attachment site for the _________ ______

Iliolumbar ligament

36

ASIS and PSIS should aligh with ___ Spinous Process and each other

S2

37

Iliac Crest should align between ____ and ____

L4 and L5

38

Two Innominate bones are joined Anteriorly by the _________ _________ on Symphyseal Surfaces

Public Symphisis

39

The ________ will articulate the ___________ on its Auricular Surface

Sacrum and Left/RIght Innominate

40

_______ ______ is an attachement site for the Iliolumbar Ligament

Iliac Tuberosity

41

_____ and ____ should align with S2 spinous process and each other

ASIS  and PSIS

42

_____ _____ should align between L4 and L5

Iliac crest

43

Label the Right Innominate

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A- Iliac Crest

B- Iliac Fossa

C- Anterior Superior Iliac Spine

D- Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine

E- Iliac Tuberosity

F- Auricular Surface of Ilium

G- Symphyseal Surface

44

Lumbar Vertebra:

has a massive body for ________ ________

weight bearing

45

Lumbar Vertebra:

has a ________ spinous processes

Blunt

46

Lumbar Vertebra:

_______ __________ on superior articular process for muscle attachment

Mammilary processes

47

Lumbar Vertebra:

Mammilary processes on superior articular process for ________ _______

muscle attachment

48

Lumbar Vertebra:

________ ________ are oriented in the sagital plane- allowing for the largest degree of flexion/extension in the spine with a smaller degree of lateral flexion

Articular Facets

49

Lumbar Vertebra:

Articular facets are oriented in the __________ plane

sagital plane

50

Lumbar Vertebra's articular facets in the sagital plane to allow for the largest degee of ________/________ in the spine with  a smaller degree of __________ _________

flexion/extension

lateral flexion

51

Label the Lumbar Vertebra

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A- Spinous process

B- Superior articular facet

C- Mammilary Process

D- Transverse process

E- Superior articular process

F- Superior vertebral notch

G- Body

H- Vertebral foramen

I- Vertebral Arch

J- Accessory Process

52

Label the Lumbar vertebra

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A- body

B- superior articular process

C- Mammilary process

D- Transverse process

E- Spinous process

F- Inferior Articular Facet

G- Inferior articular process

H- Inferior Vertebral notch

 

53

The two costal facets of thoracic vertebra is called what

Demi-facets

54

Where are the two Demi-facets of the thoracic vertebra located?

along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies from T2-T10

55

Which Thoracic vertebra has demi-facets and which have just one costal facet?

T2-T10 have demi-facets

T1, T11-12 have one costal facets

56

Where on the thoracic vertebra are the transverse costal facets located?

on the transverse processes

57

What plane is the thoracic articular facets located?

coronal plane

58

The coronal plane of thoracic articular facets allow for what movements?

Rotation and sidebending

59

Some thoracic vertebrae possess downward sloping spinous processes which provide_________________________ and _______________________

provide protection to the spinal cord and limits extension ROM

60

What further limits the thoracic spine in further motion besides the spinous processes?

the rib attachments

61

Label the Thoracic Vertebrae

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62

Lable the Thoracic 

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63

All cervical vertebrae possess transverse foramina within their transverse prossesses to house the _______ _______

vertebral artery

64

all cervical vertebrae possess __________ _______ 

transverse foramina 

65

Articular facets of the cervical vertebra are __________ to both the sagital and coronal plane

oblique

66

Articular facets are oblique to both the __________ and __________ planes

sagital and coronal

67

The most mobility in the vertebral column is found in the ______ region

cervical

68

What movements occur in the cervical spine?

Flexion, Extension, lateral flexion, and rotation 

69

The mobility into flexion and extension in the cervical vertebra is further enhacned due to what?

the convex/concave relationship of the superior vertebral body on the inferior, in C3- C6

70

Uncovertebral joints of the cervical vertebra is also known as what?

Joints of Luschka

71

C2-C6 have _______ _______ __________

bifid spinous processes

72

____-____ have bifid spinous processess

C2-C6

73

____ aka vertebral prominens has the most posteriorly pronounced spinous process

C7

74

Label Cervical Vertebra

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75

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76

Atlas aka C1 has an absence of a ________ ________ and ______ _______

spinous process and vertebral body

77

the atlas, instead of a spinous process and vertebral body there are: ______ ______ and ______ _______ with corresponding _____________

anterior arches and posterior arches with corresponding tubercles

78

________ _______ ________ are kidney bean shaped and concave part of Atlas

superior articular facets

79

________ _______ _________ are oval shaped and concave part of Atlas

inferior articular facets

80

Label the Atlas

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81

Axis aka C2 possesses all the elements of a standard cervical vertebra however it has the _____ or ________ ________ which sits superior to the body

Dens or Odontoid Process

82

Label 

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83

Label

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84

What does AO Joint stand for?

Atlanto-Occipital Joint

85

The AO Joint is a specialed joint formed between a pair of _________ __________ of cranium and a pair of ________ ________ _________ of C1

Occipital Condyle

Superior articular facets

86

The AO Joint is categorized as what sort of joint?

Bi-condyloid synovial joint

87

Name the ligaments of the AO Joint (2) 

1- Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

2- Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

88

Name the Motions included in relations to AO Joint

  1. Capital flexion/extension
  2. Capital lateral flexion

89

Label 

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90

What does AA Joint stand for?

Atlanto-Axial Joint

91

How many points of articulation at AA Joint and where?

three points of articulations:

2 (left and right) LATERAL ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINTS
located between the inferior facets of the lateral masses of C1 and the superior facets of C2
1 MEDIAN ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINT
located in between the dens of C2 and the anterior arch of the atlas

92

___________ process of C2 articulating with the anterior arch of C1 form a ________ _______ ________

Odontoid process

synovial pivot joint

93

Where is the majority of cervical rotation located? and how much degrees of rotation?

Odontoid process of C2 articulating with the anterior arch of C1 forming a synovial pivot form

about 45 degrees

94

Label

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95

The primary support for the AA joint comes from the ___________ ligament of the ____________ ligament

Transverse

cruciform

96

AA Joint is supporrted by Transverse ligament of the cruciform ligament but also contains ___________ and ___________ bands

superior and inferior bands

97

Ligaments that support the AA Joint prevents what?

prevents subluxation/dislocation of the dens

98

what does subluxation mean?

partical dislocation

99

What are the primary support ligaments of the AA Joint and where is it located?

transverse ligament of the cruciform ligament 

located deep to the TECTORIAL MEMBRANE

100

The Alar ligaments (2) run from the _______ ______ to the ______

occipital condyle 

dens

101

What does Alar ligaments do?

prevent excessive rotation (limiting ROM to 45 degrees)

and

does not provide support for the AA joint

102

Name all ligaments that provide support to the AA Joint (3)

1-transverse ligament of the cruciform ligament

2- anterior antlanto-axial membrane

3- posterior antlanto-axial membrane 

103

Label

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104

Each vertebrae will articulate __________ with the vertebra above and below at the right and left _________ ________

articulate

articular facets

105

The inferior articular facet will lie __________ to the superior articular facet

posterior

106

each facet joint is surrounded by a ________ ______

joint capsule

107

Z-Joint capsules are more lax in what regions and more restrictive in what regions?

lax in the cervical

more restrictive in the thoraco-lumbar regions

108

________ facets are oblique between the fronal and transverse planes as well as oblique between the frontal and sagital planes.

What motion does this promote

Cervical

most mobility in any region of the spine

109

_________ facets lie closet to the frontal plane

Allowing for what motion?

Thoracic facets

allowing for rotation and lateral flexion

110

________ facets lie closest to the sagital plane.

Allowing for what motions?

Lumbar facets

allowing or mostly flexion/extension with some lateral flexion

111

_____-_______ joints joint 2 adjacent vertebrae in what direction?

Inter-body joints 

anteriorly

112

Inter-body joints are classified as _____ joints where 2 vert bodies are joined by the fibrocartilagenous ______________ ______

symphysis

Intervertebral (IV) disc

113

what is a Spinal Segment aka Functional Unit made up of(5)? 

2 adjacent vertebrae

1 IV disc

1 end plate above the disc

1 end plate below the disc

114

LABEL

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115

Where is the SI Joint aka Sacroiliac Joint found?

SI Joint is found between the Sacrum and the Innominate bones bilaterally

116

The SI joint Anteriorly is ______ ______ ________

and Posteriorly is ___________

Synovial Plant Joint

Syndesmosis

117

what is a syndesmosis

a slightly movable articulation where the contiguous bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament

118

What is the SI joint supported by (4)?

1- sacroiliac

2- sacrospinous

3- sacrotuberous

4-to some degree iliolumbar ligaments

119

How move and motion is allowed in the SI joints?

small amount in millimeters

120

what is Nutation?

movement of sacral promontory anteriorly and inferiorly

aka flexion

121

what is counternutation?

movement of sacral promontory posteriorly and superiorly

aka extension

122

Label

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123

What are the two classification of spine ligaments?

Inter-segmental

and

Intra-segmental

124

What is a Inter-segmental spine ligement?

and how many are there in the spine?

a ligament that transverse multiple spinal segments, running the full length of the spine.

There is one 

125

What is a Intra-segmental spine ligement?

how many are there in the spine?

ligaments that travel in between segments with multiple quantities of the ligament found in the spine

found in multiple sites in the spine

126

Supraspinous Ligament:

Location

Type of spine ligament

Attachment to vertebrae

Function

Note

Location: most superfical posteriorly

Type of spine ligament: Inter-segmental

Attachment to vertebrae: runs along spinous processes of all vertebrae

Function: resists excessive trunk flexion

Note: thickened in the cervical region and is known as LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE aka nuchal ligament

127

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A- Vertebral canal

B- sup. articular facet

C- Post longitudinal ligament

D- Vertebral arch

E- Ligament flava

F- Sup. articular process

G- spinous process

H- interspinous ligaments

I- Intertransverse ligaments

J- Supraspinous ligament

K- Inf. articular facet

L- Facet joint capsule

M- Vert body

N- transverse process

O- ant. longitudinal ligament

P- nucleus pulposus

Q- Anulus fibrosis

R- intervertebral disk

 

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128

Interspinous Ligament:

Location

Type

Function

attachmented with?

Location: in between spinous processes

Type: Intra- segmental Ligament

Function: resists excessive trunk flexion

attachmented with: is intertwined with interspinous muscles

129

Intertransverse Ligament:

Location

Type

Function

attachment with?

Location: found between transverse processes

Type: Intra- segmental

Function: resists excessive lateral flexion

attachment with: intertwined with intertransverse muscles

130

Ligamentum Flavum:

Location

Type

Funciton

Note (2)

Location: found running from lamina to lamina

Type: Intra- segmental Ligament

Funciton: Resists excessive trunk flexion

Note (2): 1- Yellow in color due to large quantity of elastin fibers

2- Is continous with the posterior atlanto-axial and atlanto-occipital membranes

 

131

LABEL

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A- sup. articular process

B- Lamina

C- Ligamenta Flava

D- sup. articular process

E- Inf. articular facet

F- Spinous Process

G- ant. longitudinal ligament

H- Posterior longitudinal ligament

I- transverse process

J- Intertransverse Ligaments

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132

Posterior Longitudinal Ligament:

Location

Type

Function

Notes (2)

Location: runs along the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies

Type: Inter-segmental

Function: resists excessive trunk flexion

Notes: 1- less developed in the Lumbar and Thoracic regions 

2- well developed in the Cervical regions and becomes known as the Tectorial membrane in the cervical/ crancial region

133

Label

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A- Pedicles of vertebral arches

B- Intervertebral Foramen

C- Vert body

D- sup. articular facet

E- transverse process

F- inf. articular process

G- vertebral canal

H- spinous process

I- Gap in ligamentous reinforcement of the disk

J- IV disc

K- post. longitudinal ligament

L- Nutrient foramina

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134

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament:

Location

Type

Function

Notes(2)

Location: runs along the anterior aspect of all vertebral bodies

Type: Inter-segmental Ligament

Function: resists excessive trunk extension

Notes (2): 1- well developed in the Lumbar region

2- is continous with the anterior atlanto-axial and atlanto-occipital membranes in the cervical/cranial regions

135

Label

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136

IV Disc

consists of 3 parts what are they?

-Anulous fibrosis in the PERIPHERY

-Nucleus pulposus in the CENTER

-End Plates SUP/INF of each disc

137

IV Disc:

Lamellar is designed to do what (2)?

Lamellar is designed to increase strength

and

Resist tensile forces

138

IV Disc:

Nucleus pulposus is designed to do what?

Nucleus pulposus is designed to reists compressive forces

139

IV disc:

what is the function of endplates?

Endplates supply IV discs with nutrient and oxygen

as well as remove waste product via the process of diffusion 

THIS is all due to the IV discs avascular nature

140

LABEL

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141

what direction is Disc Herniation most commonly found and what region of the vert column?

Postero-laterally in the Lumbar region

142

Disc herniation:

How is the disc protected anterioly?

Protection anteriorly due to the vast anterior longitudinal ligament

143

Disc herniation:

how is the spinal cord protected?

spinal cord is protected by the posterior longitudinal ligament

144

Disc herniation:

describe the most susceptible area for disc herniation

the most susceptible area is the postero-lateral where the spinal nerve root will emerge

145

label

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146

What is the normal angle between L5 and S1?

angle between L5 and S1 is 30 degrees

147

describe what will happen when the LUMBOSACRAL ANGLE is increased?

an increase in lumbrosacral angle will increase the tendency of L5 to translate forward on S1

aka

ANTERIOR SHEAR

148

what can ANTERIOR SHEAR CAUSE (2)?

1- SPONDYLOLSIS- fracture of PARS INTERACTICULARIS

2- SPONDYLOLSTHESIS- anterior movement of vertebral body due to PARS fracture

149

what does SPONDYLOSIS mean?

refers to arthritic bony growth along the spine

150

Anterior shear happens mostly in the vert column however it is also a factor at the ________ ________

craniocervical junction

151

what is an EXTRINSIC MUSCLE?

it originates in one region of the body and inserts on another. 

It has the ability to act upon both regions

152

what is an INTRINSIC MUSCLE?

it originates and inserts into 1 region of the body.

It only acts upon that 1 region

153

What is the most superficial back muscle?

Trapezius

154

What type of muscle is TRAPEZIUS

Extrinsic

155

How many portions does the TRAPEZIUS  have? and what are they called?

3

Upper

Middle

Lower

156

TRAPEZIUS predominately acts upon what body part?

the shoulders

157

TRAPEZIUS:

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Origin-medial 1/3 of the superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7-T12

Insertion- Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, median side of acromion and the upper crest of the scapular spine, tubercle of the scapular spine

Innervation- Motor: spinal accessory (XI), proprioception: C3-C4

Function- Bilateral contraction and unilateral contraction

Notes- the supero-lateral aspect of the splenius capitus is visible as it emerges from deep to trapezius

158

Label

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159

Label

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160

Label

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161

Label

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162

Label

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163

Latissimus Dorsi:

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Type- Extrinsic

Origin- vert spines from T7- Sacrum, posterior 1/3 of Iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs, sometimes the inf. angle of the scapula

Insertion- Floor of the intertubercular groove

Innervation- Thoracodorsal nerve C7-C8 from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus

Function- extends the arm and rotates the arm medially

Notes- sup. portion is found just deep to the trapezius

           - the vast thoracolumbar fascia/aponeurosis with which the latissimus dorsi's fibers blend

 

 

164

Rhomboid Major:

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

 

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Type- Extrinsic

Origin- Spines of T2-T5

Insertion- medial border of the scapula inferior to the spine of the scapula

Innervation- Dorsal scapular nerve C5

Function- retracts, elevates and rotates the scapula inferiorly

 

165

Rhomboid Minor

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

 

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Type- Extrinsic

Origin- Inferior end of the ligamentym nuchae, spines of vert C7 and T1 

Insertion- medial border of the scapula at the root of the spine of the scapula

Innervation- Dorsal scapular nerve C5

Function- retracts, elevates and rotates the scapula inferiorly

 

166

Levator scapula

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Type- Extrinsic

Origin- Transverse processes of C1-C4

Insertion- medial border of the scapula from the superior angel to the spine

Innervation- dorsal scapular nerve C5; the upper part of the muscle receives bracnhes from C3 and the C4 spinal nerves

Function- elevates scapula

Notes- Resists ANTERIOR SHEAR in the cervical region

-becomes overworked in a forward head posture

167

What is the TRIANGLE OF AUSCULTATION composed of (3)?

1- rhomboid major LATERALLY

2-lower trapezius MEDIALLY

3- latissimus dorsi INFERIORLY

 

168

what is the clincial relevance of the triangle of auscultation?

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area where posterior lung sounds are heard easily due to decrease in muscle thickness

169

Serratus Posterior Superior

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Type- Extrinsic

Origin- Ligamentum nuchae, spines of vertebrae C7 and T1-T3

Insertion- Ribs 2-4

Innervation- Intercostal nerves (anterior rami of thoracic region)

Function- elevates the upper ribs

Notes: attachments would dictate respiratory function, BUT they appear to provide more proprioception

-found just deep to rhomboids

170

Serratus Posterior Inferior:

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Type- Extrinsic

Origin- T11-T12 and L1-L2

Insertion- Ribs 8-12

Innervation- Intercostal nerves (anterior rami of thoracic region)

Function- Pulls down lower ribs

Notes- found deep to latissimus dorsi

171

label

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172

label

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173

Deep muscles of the back were named by the region the spine in which they are found:

what are these suffixes used for?

Lumborum

Thoracis

Cervicis

Capitus

Lumbar region

Thoracic region

Cervical region

Capital region

174

Erector spinae:

consists of 3 groups of muscle, what are they and what are their positioning?

 

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1- ILIOCOSTALIS- most lateral and only ES muscle found in the lumbar region

2- LONGISSIMUS- intermediate muscle from left to right, projects from thoracic region to capital

3-SPINALIS- most medial ES, projects from thoracic region to capital 

175

What type of muscle is Erector Spinae

Intrinsic

176

label

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177

LABEL

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178

What is the Erector spinae innervated by?

Dorsal rami

179

What type of muscle is Erector spinae

Intrinsic

180

Erector spinae:

which three muscles runs superiorly towwards ribs and cervical transverse processes?

Iliocostalis lumborum

Iliocostalis thoracis

Iliocostalis cervicis

181

Erector spinae:

which three muscles runs superiorly to ribs between tubercles and angles, to transverse processes in cervical region and to mastoid process

Longissimus thoracis

longissimus cervicis

longissimus capitus

182

Erector spinae:

which three muscles runs superiorly along psinous processes of thoracic and cervical region to the cranium?

Spinalis thoracis

spinalis cervicis

capitus

183

The Erector spinae functions with three types of contractions, what are they called and what do they do?

1- Unilateral contraction- produces ipsilateral lateral flexion

*ipsilateral= belonging to or occurring on the same side of the body.

2- Bilateral contraction- produces extension of the trunk

3- Ipsilateral rotation- Iliocostalis produces this 











 

184

Splenius Cervicis/Capitus

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Type- Intrinsic

Origin- C7-T3 spinous processes

Insertion- Transverse processes of cervical vertebra, superior nuchal line, and mastoid process

Innervation- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-C6

Function- Produces ipsilateral rotation, ipsilateral lateral flexion with unilateral contraction 

Note- has some ability to produce extension with bilateral contraction

-found deep to the upper trapezius

185

label

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186

Multifidus:

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

Type- Intrinsic

Origin- transverse process spanning 2-4 segments

Insertion- spinous process spanning 2-4 segments

Innervation- dorsal rami

Function- Unilateral contraction produces contralateral rotation and/or ipsilateral lateral flexion

-bilateral contraction produces trunk extension

Notes- designed to produce posterior shear to counteract the natural anterior shear due to LORDOTIC curvature

-found deep to ES running the entire length of the spine

-well developed in the lumbosacral region (runs more vertical here)

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Rotatores: Brevis/ Longus

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Origin: Brevis/Longus - tranverse process 

Insertion- Brevis- spines 1 vertebrae above origin, Longus- spines 2 vertebrae above origin

Innervation- dorsal rami

Function- same primary movements as multidus (rotates the vertebral column to the opposite side)

Notes- found deep to multifidus in the thoracic spine

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Semispinalis: thoracis/cervicis/capitus

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Type-Intrinsic

Origin- C4-T12 transverse processes

Insertion- spinous processes spanning 4-6 vertebrae above origin

Innervation- dorsal rami

Function-the vertical orientation of fibers is best suited to produced extension

Notes- found deep to splenius muscles

-greater occipital nerve C2 pierces through the semiphinalis, which is maybe a cause of headaches which radiate from posteior neck to anterior head

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Levator costarum:

Type

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

 

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Type- Intrinsic

Origin- transverse processes

Insertion- rib below its origin

Innervation- dorsal rami

Function- elevates rib

 

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Quadratus Lumborum:

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Notes

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Origin- Posterior part of Iliac creast 

Insertion- transverse processes of L1-L5 and 12th rib

Innervation- ventral rami of T12-L5

Function- Unilateral contraction may produce ipsilateral lateral flexion or elevation of the pelvis

Notes- found lateral to multifidus

-forms most posterior boundary of abdominal wall

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Interspinalis:

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

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Origin- upper border of spinous process

Insertion- lower border of spinous process above

Innervation- dorsal rami nerves C1-L5

Function- extend trunk and neck

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Intertransversarii:

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

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Origin- Upper border of transverse processes

Insertion- lower border of transverse processes above

Innervation- dorsal rami of spinal nerves C1-L5

Function- laterally bend trunk and neck

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Suboccipital muscles:

Name the 4 muscles and its origin/insertion

1-Rectus capitus posterior minor: posterior tubercleof C1 to inferior nuchal line

2- Rectus capitus posterior major: spinous process of C2 to inferior nuchal line

3- Superior oblique- transverse process of C1 to occiput between the sup. and inf. nuchal lines

4- Inferior oblique- spinous process of C2 to transverse process of C1

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Suboccipital Muscles: related to all 4 of them

Innervation

Function

Note

Innervation- suboccipital nerve

Function- Bilateral contraction produces capital extension

-Unilateral contraction produces capital ipsilateral rotation

Note- found deep to semispinalis capitus between C2 and occiput

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Suboccipital Triangle:

How many boundaries are present and name them and their orientation

3

1-Rectus capitis posterior major MEDIALLY

2-Superior oblique LATERALLY

3- Inferior oblique INFERIORLY

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What nerve and artery is contained in the Suboccipital Triangle?

Suboccipital Nerve 

Vertebral Artery

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Dorsal Root:

-articulates with ___________ aspect of spinal cord at the _________ _______

-carries ____________ information

-cell body of the nerve is located in the ________ _____ _________

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articulates with posterior aspect of the spinal cord at the dorsal horn

afferent(sensory) information

cell body is located in the dorsal root ganglion

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Ventral Root:

-articulates with the __________ aspect of the spinal cord at the __________ ________

-carries _____________ information

-cell body is located within the __________ _______

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articulates with the anterior aspect of the spinal cord at the ventral horn

carries efferent (motor) information

cell body is located within the ventral horn

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Dorsal and Ventral roots converge to form _______ _______ ______ which emerges via the __________ ________

spinal nerve root

transverse foramen

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The spinal nerve root splits into __________ and _________ rami which carry both sensory and motor information

dorsal rami

ventral rami

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where does the dorsal rami supply sensation to?

to the back

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what type of muscle does the dorsal rami innervate?

intrinsic

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where does the Ventral rami supply sensation to ?

anterior trunk

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what type of muscles does Ventral rami innervate?

Intrinsic muscles

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where does the Ventral rami innervate?

anterior trunk

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Ventral Rami form plexuses that both sensory and motor information be sent to UE (____-____) and LE (___-___)

upper extremity C5-T1

lower extremity L2-S3

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The spinal cord is covered in how many layers of connective tissues called Meninges? and what are they called and oriented?

3

1- Dura mater- most superficial

2-Arachnoid Mater- intermediate

3- Pia Mater- most intimate layer

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what level does the spinal cord terminate at?

L1-L2

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The tapering of the spinal cord at L1-L2 is known as what?

Conus Medularis

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Nerve roots that emerge from the Conus Meduaris is known as what?

Cauda equina

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The end of Conus Medularis is tethered to the Sacum via a continuation of Pia Mater known as what?

Filum Terminale

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Pia mater is thered to arachnoid and dura mater at multiple locations along the spinal cord via what?

Denticulate Ligaments

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In the Cervical Spine:

nerve roots will emerge superior or inferior to the correspoinding vertebra?

Superior 

i.e. C1 nerve root will emerge superior to C1 vertebra

C2 nerve root will emerge superior to C2 vertebra and etc until

C7nerve root emerge superior to C7 vertebra

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Inferior to C7 vertebra what spinal nerve root will emerge?

C8 spinal nerve root

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All nerve roots in the Thoracic and Lumbar regions emerge inferior or superior to the corresponding vertebra?

Inferior

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If an individual sustained IV disc herniation at L4-L5, which spinal nerve root may be compressed?

L4

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What are the two things that limit the ROM of the Thoracic Vertebrae?

The Ribs and the Donward sloping spinous processes

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There are different types of Costal Facets on the Thoracic vertebrae that articulate the ribs. What are the two spots and where do they touch the ribs?

Costal Facets on the Vertebral body articulate the Head of the Rib

Costal Facets on the Transverse process articulate the Tubercle of the Rib

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What blood vessel travels through the Cervical Vertebra?

HINT: for the brain.

Vertebral artery

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What does the Cervical and Lumbar Vertebra have such a large Foramen?

Cervical has a large triangle like foramen due to Brachial Plexus

Lumbar also has Plexus

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What is the cervical vertebra the most mobile?

Due to the concave vertebral body 

and

oblique facets

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What does the Atlas C1 lack that is part of a normal vertebra (4)?

Spinous process

Vertebral Body

Pedicle*

Lamina*

*aka Vertebral arch

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The Dens is aka the what?

Dontoid Process

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How can you describe the physical properties of a Condyloid Synovial Joint?

it has a oval Convex

and

oval Concave

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The Cervical can rotate the head about 90 degree.

45 degree is where? and the rest of the 45 degrees is where?

50% is from the AA joint

50% is from C3-C7

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What is Alar Ligaments main purpose?

to limit ROM

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What type of membrane is the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament that is near the AA joint?

Tectorial membrane 

it is very thick for it is a secondary line of protection

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If the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament is the backup for protect the AA joint, what is the Primary restraint of the AA joint?

Transverse Ligament of the Atlas

it prevents dislocation and subluxation of the dens

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What is the only Ligament that resists Excessive trunk EXTENSION?

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

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What is the physical property/construction of Lamellar and what sort of force does it resist?

It is in multiple layers

It resists Tensile Force

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What sort of foce does Nucleus propulus resist?

Compressive forces

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Costal of the Thoracic body articulates which part of the rib?

Head of the rib

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On the transverse costal facet of the thoracic vertebrae what part of the rib does it articulate?

The Tuberacle

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What two vertebral regions is there a big vertebral foramen and why?

The Cervical and Lumbar due to many nerve endings being channeled out of there. ie the plexuses

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Why is the Cervical Vertebral region the most mobile?

1- Has vertebral body that has concave/convex lateral grooves

2- Oblique facets that are oblique in three planes

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What structures does the Atlas lack?

Spinous process, Lamina, Pedicle, and Vertebral body

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What sort of cartilage is located where the Dens articulates the Atlas?

Hyline cartilage

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What is Dens aka?

Dontoid Process

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What shape is the AO joint and what sort of joint is it?

Oval convex and Oval concave

resulting in a condyloid joint a synovial condyloid joint to be more exact

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Name the two 50% range creating areas of the total 90 degrees of the cervical vertebrae region.

1- 50% from the AA joint

2- 50% from the rest of C3-C7

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What motion is is the Zygapophyseal aka Facet Joint known for?

Gliding or sliding joint

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