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Flashcards in 4- Cranial Nerves Deck (62):
1

How many pairs of nerve are emerging directly from the brain/brain stem considered Cranial Nerves?

12 pairs

2

The 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge directly from the brain or brain stem travel through what of the cranium?

they travel through foramina in the cranium

3

What two kind of information do cranial nerves carry?

They carry either: SENSORY or MOTOR impulse. or sometimes a combination of both.

4

How are the 12 pairs of cranial nerves ordered?

1 being the most Rostal and 12 the most Caudal. Rostral means pertaining to the "beak" or "beak-like"

5

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN I

Olfactory SENSORY

6

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN II

Optic SENSORY

7

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN III

Oculomotor MOTOR

8

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN IV

Trochlear MOTOR

9

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN V

Trigeminal BOTH

10

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN VI

Abducent MOTOR

11

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN VII

Facial BOTH

12

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear SENSORY

13

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN IX

Glossopharyngeal BOTH

14

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN X

Vagus BOTH

15

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN XI

Spinal Accessory MOTOR

16

Name and type of cranial nerve of: CN XII

Hypoglossal MOTOR

17

CN I:

Name

Function

Origin

Path & Terminal

Notes

Name: Olfactory Nerve

Function: Special sense of smell

Origin: Frontal Lobe 

Path & Terminal: leads to the Ethmoid and expands into Olfactory bulbs

Notes: Olfactory bulbs give off multiple nerve endings that pierce through the Cribiform plate.

-In the Nasal cavity the Olfactory nerve endings possess cilia that are covered in mucous

-Those cilia are stimulated by the scent of molecules dissolved in the mucous that then is transmitted to the brain

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18

CN II:

Name 

Function 

Origin

Path & Terminal 

Notes

Name - Optic Nerve

Function - Special Visual sense

Origin- Decussates at the OPTIC CHIASM 

Path & Terminal- travels through the Optic Canal and is continous with the Retina of the Eye

Notes- Decussation at the Optic Chiasm means that the Left Optic Nerve will receive stimulus from the Left visual field and the Right will receive from the righ visual field

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19

CN III:

Name 

Function 

Origin

Path & Terminal 

Notes

Name- Oculomotor

Function - Motor innervation to: Superior Rectus, Medial Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Inferior Oblique, Levator Palpabrae superioris, and Sphincter pupillae

Origin- Midbrain

Path & Terminal- exits the cranium via Superior Obital Fissures and innervates the muscles of the eye 

Note- "down & out" if injured affects the eyeballs position of lateral and downward gaze. 

-also controls the constriction of the pupils.

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20

CN IV:

Name 

Function 

Origin

Path & Terminal 

Notes

Name- Trochlear

Function - Innervation of the superior oblique of the eye

Origin- Midbrain

Path & Terminal- exits the cranium via the Superior Orbital fissure to innervate superior oblique 

Notes- if damaged it affects the eyeballs ability to restrict the drift towards the nose. 

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21

CN V:

Name 

Origin(1)

Terminal(1)

Branches(3)

 

 

Name - Trigeminal

Origin- Pons

Terminal- Trigeminal Ganglion

Branch #1: CN V1- Ophthalmic

Branch #2 CN V2- Maxillary

Branch #3 CN V3- Mandibular

 

22

How does CV1 exit the cranium and its Function?

CV1 exits the cranium via Superior Orbital fisssure

Function: provides sensation to the cornea, superior forehead and scalp, eyelids, nose, and nasal cavity

 

23

How does CV2 exit the cranium and it Function?

CV2 exits the cranium via Foramen Rotundum

Function: provides sensation to the skin and teeth along the maxilla as well as to the palate and surrounding mucosa

24

How does CV3 exit the cranium and its Function?

CV3 exits the cranium via Foramen Ovale

Function: provides sensation to the skin along the mandible as well as the front 2/3 of the tongue

-also provides motor innervation to the muscles of Mastication (Temporalis, Masseter, Medial/Lateral Pteragoids), Mylohyoid, Anterior Digastric, Tensor Veli Palantini, and Tensor Tympani

25

CN VI:

Name 

Function 

Origin

Path & Terminal 

 

Name - Abducent

Function - provides motor innervation to the lateral rectus of the eye

Origin- brain stem between the pons and medulla

Path & Terminal - exits the cranium via the superior orbital fissure to innervate the lateral rectus

26

CN VII:

Name 

Function 

Origin

Path & Terminal 

 

Name - Facial

Function - provides specail taste sense to the front 2/3 of the tongue

-Motor innervation to muscles of facial expression(stapedius, stylohyoid, and posteror digastric)

-Parasympathetic innervation to sublingual, submandibular, and lacrimal glands

Origin- between the Pons and Medulla

Path & Terminal - travels through the internal acoustic meatus, exits the cranium via Stylomastoid foramen, and then through the Parotoid gland

Notes- the front 2/3 of the tongue tastes sweet and salty

27

Upon emerging from the Parotid gland the CN VII: facial nerve, form what?

Parotid Plexus

28

The Parotid Plexus gives rise to how many facial muscle branches? and what are the names of them?

5

 1- Temporal

2- Zygomatic

3- Buccal

4- Marginal Mandibular

5- Cervical

 

29

Special sense of taste is carried by a branch known as what?

Chondra tympani it arises prior to emergence from the Stylomastoid foramen

30

CN VIII:

Name
Function
Origin
Path & Terminal
 

Name- Vestibulcochlear
Function- special sense of Hearing(cochlear branch) and Equilibrium (vestibular branch)
Origin- (Vestibular)arises between Pons and Medulla

(Cochlear) arises from the Medulla
Path & Terminal- exits the cranium via the Internal Acoustic Meauts then splits into its constituent parts
 

31

CN IX:

Name
Function
Origin
Path & Terminal
Notes

Name- Glossopharyngeal
Function- Provide general sensation to the Mucosa of the oropharynx, tonsils

-the soft palate as the sensory portion of the gag reflex

-baraoreception and chemorecption to the carotid sinus and carotid body

-sensation to middle ear via tympanic nerve
Origin- Lateral Medulla
Path & Terminal- exits cranium via jugular foramen then courses along the Stylopharyngeus, through the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors to land in the Oropharynx and tongue
 

32

The Glossopharyngeal provides special sense of taste to what part and what taste to the tongue?

back 1/3 and the taste of bitter

33

CN IX: glossopharyngeal

provides motor innervation to the what and what action does it help occur?

Innervation to the Stylopharyngeus and helps with deglutition (act of swallowing)

34

CN X:

Name
Function
Origin
Path & Terminal
Notes

Name- Vagus
Function- sensations to organs of the Thorax and Abdomen

-sensation to the inferior pharynx/larynx

special sensation of taste in the epiglottis

-Motor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx (motor portion of the gag reflex)
Origin- Lateral Medulla
Path & Terminal- exits cranium via the Jugular foramen between CN IX and CN XI, then runs between the Common Carotid artery and the Internal Jugular vein in the Carotid sheath
Notes- give off the pharyngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve.

35

The superior nerve branches into what two nerves?

the internal and external laryngeal nerve

36

The inferior Laryngeal nerve becomes what?

Recurrent Layngeal

37

The recurrent laryngeal from The Vagus nerve loops to the left and right, what do they look around?

Right: subclavian artery

Left: Ligamentum arteriosum

38

Whats the main branch of the Vagus nerve supply Parasympathetic innervation to?

Heart and lungs

Esophagus as the esophageal plexus

39

The Vagus nerves goes super low in the body, what "lower" organs does it innervate?

Esophagus, stomach, and the intestines

40

CN XI:

Name
Function
Origin
Path & Terminal
Notes

Name- Spinal Accessory
Function- motor innervation to the Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid
Origin- with CN X from the Lateral medulla
Path & Terminal- exits the cranium via the Jugular Foramen, then merges with the 1st 5-6 cervical nerve roots and courses along the internal carotid artery to its innervations
 

41

CN XII:

Name
Function
Origin
Path & Terminal
 

Name- Hypoglossal
Function- motor innervation to the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the Tongue
Origin- Medulla 
Path & Terminal- exits the cranium via Hypoglossal cana, then merges with C1 and C2, then it innervates suprahyoid musculature and the muscles of the tongue
 

42

Where is the Optic Chiasm located?

Circle of Willis

43

what is the conductive part of the eye that transmits into the CN II?

Retina of the eye

44

What actions do these eye muscles produce?

Medial Rectus

Inferior Rectus

Inferior oblique

superior Rectus

Levator palpabrae superioris

medial rectus= adducts eyes

superior rectus= elevates the eyes

inferior rectus= depresses the eyes

inferior oblique= torsion of the eyes

levator palpabrae superioris= elevates the eyelids

45

how many muscles invovled in moveing the eye and how many in moving the eyelid?

1 for eyelid

5 for moving the eyeball

46

what happens when CN IV: trochlear is damamged?

can't externally rotate and depress already adducted eyeball

47

what is the neuromotor junction of the eye and trochlear CN?

trochlear fasica

48

what does the superior oblique orbital muscle do?

externally rotate the eye

49

when the eye is already adducted what does the superior oblique muscle do to the eye, what is this motion used in?

it depresses the eye and helps it move laterally ie when reading a book

50

What CN receives facial pain?

CN V trigeminal nerve

51

Of the Trigeminal nerves which is only sensory and which is both sensory and motor?

CN V1 and CN V2 are only sensory

and

CN V3 is both sensory and motor

52

Which CN abducts the eye muscle aka Lateral Rectus of the eye?

CN VI: abducent nerve

53

What does swelling of the Parotid gland result in?

it complicates the CN VII facial nerve, resulting in paralysis to the mouth/ face area. can cause loss of taste and facial muscle ie drool

54

what does insidious mean and what's an example related to facial nerve

unknown origin

ie

bells palsy

55

What is the 4 path points that Facial nerve passes through.

1- Internal acoustic meatus

2- exits the cranium

3- stylomastoid foramen

4- travels through the parotid gland

56

How does Vestibulcochlear CN VIII exit the cranium?

via the internal acoustic meatus

57

What CN senses the Gag Reflex?

In the CN IX Glossopharyngeal

58

Which CN is the longest and it's relationship with it's name?

Vagus named after greek word for "wonderer" hence los vegas

59

Which CN is involved in the motor portion of the Gag Reflex?

CN X Vagus Nerve

60

When disecting what is encased in the carotid sheath?

Vagus CN

Common Carotid artery

inf. Juglar vein

61

What does the Vagus CN give off (6)?

pharyngeal nerve

superior laryngeal nerve (branches into):

A- internal laryngeal nerve

B- external laryngeal nerve

C- inferior laryngeal nerve

C turns into Recurrent Laryngeal

 

62

The Recurrent Laryngeal loops to the right and left. what do each side lopp around?

Left: Ligamentum arteriosum: loop of connective tissue arotic arch and pulmonary trunk

Right: around the subclavian artery

These two provide parasympathetic for the heart, lung and GI