Label these Pertinent Bony Landmarks of the head
Superficial Musculature: PLATYSMA
Where does it Project from?
PLATYSMA projects from the mandible.
it projects from the Mandible
blends with the _______ ______
What is the Platysma innervated by?
Playsma is innervated by CN VII
what is the main FUNCTION?
Main function is to tense the skin of the Anterior neck
also has the ability to depress the Mandible
Label these Superficial Musculatures
What does SCM stand for?
How many heads does SCM have?
and what are they called?
Sternocleidomastoid has 2 heads
Where does the SCM attach to(3)?
The Sternocleidomastoid attaches to:
Manubrium of Sternum
Medial 1/3 of Clavicle
What is the Sternocleidomastoid innervated by?
SCM is innervated by CN XI aka Spinal accessory nerve
What are the Functions of SCM?
The Sternocleidomastoid's functions are:
Bilaterally- cervical flexion
Unilaterally- ipsilateral sidebending and contralateral rotation
What are the 3 Boundaries of the Posterior Triangle?
1- SCM anteriorly
2- Upper Trapezius Posteriorly
3- Clavicle Inferiorly
What are the 9 Contents of the Posterior Triangle formed by the SCM, Trapezius, and Clavicle?
1- CN XI aka Spinal Accessory Nerve
2- Branches of Cervical Plexus
3- Roots and Trunks of Brachial Plexus
4- Phrenic nerves (C3, C4, C5)
5- Subclavian Artery
6- Inferior Belly of Omohyoid
7- All 3 Scalene Muscles
8- Levator Scapula
9- Splenius Cervicis/Capitus
What is the Borders of the Anterior Triangle (3)?
1- Midline of the Neck Anteriorly
2- SCM Posteriorly
3- Mandible Superiorly
What is the 2 Contents of the Anterior Triangle?
1- Supra-hyoid muscles
There is a Superficial Musculature called Scalene. They are also split into 3 parts. What are three parts called?
1- Anterior scalene
2- Middle scalene
3- Posterior scalene
Whare is the attachment of Anterior scalene?
Transverse Process of C3-C6
What are the attachments of Middle scalene?
Transverse processes of C2-C6
What are the attachments of Posterior scalene?
Transverse processes of C5-C7
What muscle is the Posterior scalene found deep to?
Posterior scalene is found deep to Levator Scapula
What are all 3 Scalenes innervated by?
All 3 are innervated by
Cervical Spinal Nerves
What are the three Actions capable of the Scalenes?
1- Bilaterally- Cervical Flexion
2- Unilaterally: Ipsilateral- Cervical sidebending
3- Unilaterally: Contralateral- Cervical rotation
Label the Hyoid and Larynx area
Label of Vocal folds of the Larynx
Name the 5 Infrahyoid Musculatures
What are the attachements of the Sternohyoid?
The Sternohyoid attaches from Manubrium to Hyoid
What innervates the Sternohyoid?
The Sternohyoid is innervated by the Cervical Anterior Rami
During Deglutination, what does the Sternhyoid cause the Hyoid to do?
Depresses the Hyoid during Deglutination (swallowing)
The Omohyoid is split into two parts known as "bellies" , what are they called?
1- Superior belly
2- Inferior belly
What are the attachments of the Omohyoid?
The Omohyoid attaches from Superior angle of Scapula to the Hyoid
***the intermediate tendon tethers to the Clavicle via a Fascial Sling***
The Omohyoid's intermediate tendon tethers to what?
and by does it hang off of it?
The intermediate tendon is tethered to the clavicle via the Fascial Sling
What is the Omohyoid innervated by?
The Omohyoid is innervated by the Cervical Anterior rami
What is the function of the Omohyoid?
it can depress and retract the Hyoid
What are the attachments of the Tyhrohyoid?
The Thyrohyoid attaches from the Thyroid cartilage to the Hyoid
Thyrohyoid is innervated by what?
Thyrohyoid is innervated by CN XII (Facial)
What does the Thyrohyoid do?
The Thyrohyoid depresses the hyoid
Elevates the Larynx
What are the attachments of the Sternothyroid?
The Sternothyroid attaches from Manubrium to Thyroid cartilage
What innervates the Sternothyroid?
The Sternothyroid is innervated by the Cervical Anterior Rami
What does the Sternohyoid do?
Sternohyoid depresses the Hyoid
depresses the Larynx
What are the attachments of the Cricothyroid?
The Cricothyroid is attached from the Cricoid Cartilage to the Thyroid Cartilage
What innervates the Cricothyroid?
Cricothyroid is innervated by CN X aka Vagus Nerve
What does the Cricothyroid do?
The Cricothyroid causes the Vocal Folds to Tense up for PHONATION
What are the 4 Suprahyoid Musculatures?
How many bellies does Digastric have and what is it called?
What are the attachments of Digastric?
Digastic attaches from Mandible to Mastoid process
***has an intermediate tendon tethered to Hyoid via Fascial Sling***
The Digastric attaches from the Mandible to the Mastoid Process. It also has an intermediate tendon. What does it tether to and by what/via what?
The Digastric tethers to the Hyoid via Fascial Sling
What is the Digastric innervated by?
The Digastric is innervated by CN VII aka Facial nerve
What is the function of Digastric?
The Digastric elevates the hyoid during Deglutination
Depresses mandible against resistance (Forceful)
What are the attachments of Stylohyoid?
Stylolyoid attaches from the Styloid Process to the Hyoid
What does the Stylohyoid run parallel to?
The Stylohyoid runs Anteriorly, parallel to the Posterior belly of Digastric
What innervated the Stylohyoid?
The Stylohyoid is innervated by CN VII aka Facial nerve
What does the Stylohyoid do?
Stylohyoid Elevates the Hyoid
Retracts the Hyoid
What are the attachments of Mylohyoid?
The Mylohyoid attaches from the Mandible
What innervated the Mylohyoid?
Mylohyoid is innervated by CN V3 aka Mandibular branch of the Trigeminal nerve
What does the Mylohyoid do?
Mylohyoid Elevates the Hyoid, floor of the Mouth, and Tongue during
What are the attachments for Geniohyoid?
Geniohyoid attaches from Mandible to Hyoid
it runs almost perpendicular to mylohyoid
What does the Geniohyoid run perpendicular with?
Geniohyoid runs perpendicular with Mylohyoid
What innervates the Geniohyoid?
Geniohyoid is innervated by CN XII aka Hypoglossal nerve
What does Geniohyoid do?
Geniohyoid Elevates the Hyoid
What are the two Deep Cervical Musculatures?
1- Longus Colli
2- Longus Capitis
What are the attachments for Longus Colli?
Longus Colli attaches to Anterior Tubercle of C1, bodies of C1-C3, Transverse processes of C3-C6
Bodies of C5-T3, Transverse processes of C3-C5
What innervates Longus Colli?
Cervical Anterior rami innervates Longus Colli
What are the attachments for Longus Capitis?
Longus capitis attaches from Transverse processes of C3-C6
Anterior aspect of Occipital bone
What function do the Deep Cervical Musculatures, Longus Colli & Longus Capitis both do?
They both are chief Capital Flexors
Cervical Spine Stability
How many Pharyngeal contrictors are there? and what are they called?
1- Superior Pharyngeal constrictor
2- Middle Phayngeal constrictor
3- Inferior Phayngeal constrictor
Where are the three Pharyngeal constrictors located in relation to the esophagus?
They are located posterior to the esophagus
Out of the three Pharyngeal constrictors which is visible when the Larynx is removed from the body?
The inferior is the only visible when the Larynx is removed
What is the main function of the the three Pharyngeal constrictors?
They constrict the walls of the Pharynx during Deglutination
What are the 5 Neurovascular Structures of the Neck?
1- Common Carotid Artery
2- Internal Jugular Vein
3- Carotid Sheath
4- CN XI aka Accessory Nerve
5- Phrenic Nerve
What muscles becomes tight and short for someone with constant protrusion of the head?
What bilateral actions does Sternoclediomastoid cuase?
At Utero what two muscles are very close and then develop and seperate to respected locations?
Why is the Phrenic nerve C3, C4, C5 in the Posterior triangle important?
It innervates the Diaphragm
What perfuses the scalene muscles?
Why does the Scalene muscles lack production of Captial motion?
due to the termination at the cervical level
In the Posterior Triangle there's another triangle called the scalene triangle. What makes up that triangle?
Which scalene is deep to the Levator scapula?
Is SCM and Scalene muscles synergist or antagonist?
Is the Right SCM and Left Splenius capitus synergist or antagonist?
Is the Right SCM and Right Splenus capitis synergist or antagonist?
What vertebral height is the Hyoid?
What clinical emergency application is there for Cricothyroid membrane?
the Gap between the 1st cricoid ring adn the Thyroid cartilage is the Cricothyroid membrane for trachiodomy
Which Cricoid ring is a complete ring?
only the 1st
What sort of bone is the hyoid?
floating and sysmoid bone with no bone articulation
What unique features is present in the posterior portion of most cricoid rings in the trachea?
besides the 1st ring the rest are incomplete "C rings" allowing for the esophogus to attach there to allow expansion for swallowing of food or bolie
What is the function of Epiglottus?
to close off the esophogus for food/water
What is the abnormal passing of food or water into the esophogus due to bad epiglottus called?
If asperation continues and liquiod builds in the lung what does that result in?
Which Infrahyoid muscle is most superficial and medial?
Sternohyoid attaches from hyoid to which portion of the Manubrium?
the posterior aspect
Which Infrahyoid muscle is important for swallowing and why?
it helps move the airway away from the food
Which triangle is the Superior Omohyoid belly seen in?
Which triangle is the Inferior Omohyoid belly seen in?
What does the Sternothyroid depress?
the hyoid, larynx, and thyroid
What is directly superficial to the cricothyroid membrane?
The anterior aspect of the Digastric is parallel to what suprahyoid muscle?
What ligament should be found on the anterior aspect of the cervical spine?
anterior longitudinal ligament
Longus Colli is aka what?
What hold the Esophogus to the larynx?
which Pharyngeal constrictor to be visible?
The inferior constrictor
Pharyngeal constrictors initiates what autonomic motion?
Peristolisis- rthymic movement of moving food
coughing and gag reflex is initated also where?
The common carotid artery and internal jugular vein with vagus nerve is housed where?
What is the position of the Common carotid artery, Internal Jugular vein and CN in the Carotid sheath?
Medial to Lateral
CN X: intermediate
What cervical aspects does Phrenic nerve consists of and which is the most important?
C3, C4, C5
C4 is the most important
Starting from the origin of Posterior Triangle name the path of the Phrenic nerve.
1- Origin- Posterior triangle
2- the most important C4 nerve root merges and sits on the Anterior Scalene
3- Dives into the Thorax
4- Circumnaviages the heart
5- Articulates the Diaphragm
What lining is the Phrenic nerve near and what does it provide?
Close to the pericardium, providing noseoceptive to the shoulder/jaw area as pain dermatome