6- Anterior Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6- Anterior Neck Deck (110):
1

Label these Pertinent Bony Landmarks of the head

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2

Superficial Musculature: PLATYSMA

Where does it Project from?

PLATYSMA projects from the mandible.

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3

Platysma:

it projects from the Mandible 

and

blends with the _______ ______

Pectoral Fascia

4

What is the Platysma innervated by?

hint CN:?

Playsma is innervated by CN VII 

aka

Facial Nerve

5

Platysma:

what is the main FUNCTION?

Main function is to tense the skin of the Anterior neck

also has the ability to depress the Mandible

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6

Label these Superficial Musculatures

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7

What does SCM stand for?

Sternocleidomastoid

8

How many heads does SCM have?

and what are they called?

Sternocleidomastoid has 2 heads

Sternal Head

Clavicular Head

9

Where does the SCM attach to(3)?

The Sternocleidomastoid attaches to:

Mastoid Process

Manubrium of Sternum

Medial 1/3 of Clavicle

10

What is the Sternocleidomastoid innervated by?

HINT: CN?

SCM is innervated by CN XI aka Spinal accessory nerve

11

What are the Functions of SCM?

The Sternocleidomastoid's functions are:

Bilaterally- cervical flexion

Unilaterally- ipsilateral sidebending and contralateral rotation

12

What are the 3 Boundaries of the Posterior Triangle?

1- SCM anteriorly

2- Upper Trapezius Posteriorly

3- Clavicle Inferiorly

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13

What are the 9 Contents of the Posterior Triangle formed by the SCM, Trapezius, and Clavicle?

1- CN XI aka Spinal Accessory Nerve

2- Branches of Cervical Plexus

3- Roots and Trunks of Brachial Plexus

4- Phrenic nerves (C3, C4, C5)

5- Subclavian Artery

6- Inferior Belly of Omohyoid

7- All 3 Scalene Muscles

8- Levator Scapula

9- Splenius Cervicis/Capitus

14

What is the Borders of the Anterior Triangle (3)?

1- Midline of the Neck Anteriorly

2- SCM Posteriorly

3- Mandible Superiorly 

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15

What is the 2 Contents of the Anterior Triangle?

1- Supra-hyoid muscles

2-Infra-hyoid muscles

16

There is a Superficial Musculature called Scalene. They are also split into 3 parts. What are three parts called?

1- Anterior scalene

2- Middle scalene

3- Posterior scalene

17

Whare is the attachment of Anterior scalene?

Transverse Process of C3-C6 

to

1st Rib

18

What are the attachments of Middle scalene?

Transverse processes of C2-C6

to 

1st Rib

19

What are the attachments of Posterior scalene?

Transverse processes of C5-C7

to 

2nd rib

20

What muscle is the Posterior scalene found deep to?

Posterior scalene is found deep to Levator Scapula

21

What are all 3 Scalenes innervated by?

All 3 are innervated by 

Anterior rami

of

Cervical Spinal Nerves

22

What are the three Actions capable of the Scalenes?

1- Bilaterally- Cervical Flexion

2- Unilaterally: Ipsilateral- Cervical sidebending

3- Unilaterally: Contralateral- Cervical rotation

23

Label the Hyoid and Larynx area

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24

Label of Vocal folds of the Larynx

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25

Name the 5 Infrahyoid Musculatures

1- Sternohyoid

2- Omohyoid

3- Thryohyoid

4- Sternothyroid

5- Cricothyroid

26

What are the attachements of the Sternohyoid?

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The Sternohyoid attaches from Manubrium to Hyoid

27

What innervates the Sternohyoid?

The Sternohyoid is innervated by the Cervical Anterior Rami

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28

During Deglutination, what does the Sternhyoid cause the Hyoid to do?

Depresses the Hyoid during Deglutination (swallowing)

29

The Omohyoid is split into two parts known as "bellies" , what are they called?

1- Superior belly

2- Inferior belly

30

What are the attachments of the Omohyoid?

The Omohyoid attaches from Superior angle of Scapula to the Hyoid

***the intermediate tendon tethers to the Clavicle via a Fascial Sling***

31

The Omohyoid's intermediate tendon tethers to what?

and by does it hang off of it?

The intermediate tendon is tethered to the clavicle via the Fascial Sling

32

What is the Omohyoid innervated by?

The Omohyoid is innervated by the Cervical Anterior rami

33

What is the function of the Omohyoid?

it can depress and retract the Hyoid

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34

What are the attachments of the Tyhrohyoid?

The Thyrohyoid attaches from the Thyroid cartilage to the Hyoid

35

Thyrohyoid is innervated by what?

Thyrohyoid is innervated by CN XII (Facial)

36

What does the Thyrohyoid do?

The Thyrohyoid depresses the hyoid

and

Elevates the Larynx

37

What are the attachments of the Sternothyroid?

The Sternothyroid attaches from Manubrium to Thyroid cartilage

38

What innervates the Sternothyroid?

The Sternothyroid is innervated by the Cervical Anterior Rami

39

What does the Sternohyoid do?

Sternohyoid depresses the Hyoid 

and

depresses the Larynx

40

What are the attachments of the Cricothyroid?

The Cricothyroid is attached from the Cricoid Cartilage to the Thyroid Cartilage

41

What innervates the Cricothyroid?

Cricothyroid is innervated by CN X aka Vagus Nerve

42

What does the Cricothyroid do?

The Cricothyroid causes the Vocal Folds to Tense up for PHONATION

43

What are the 4 Suprahyoid Musculatures?

1- Digastric

2- Stylohyoid

3- Mylohyoid

4- Geniohyoid

44

How many bellies does Digastric have and what is it called?

2

Anterior belly

and

Posterior belly

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45

What are the attachments of Digastric?

Digastic attaches from Mandible to Mastoid process

***has an intermediate tendon tethered to Hyoid via Fascial Sling***

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46

The Digastric attaches from the Mandible to the Mastoid Process. It also has an intermediate tendon. What does it tether to and by what/via what?

The Digastric tethers to the Hyoid via Fascial Sling

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47

What is the Digastric innervated by?

The Digastric is innervated by CN VII aka Facial nerve

48

What is the function of Digastric?

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The Digastric elevates the hyoid during Deglutination 

and

Depresses mandible against resistance (Forceful)

49

What are the attachments of Stylohyoid?

Stylolyoid attaches from the Styloid Process to the Hyoid

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50

What does the Stylohyoid run parallel to?

The Stylohyoid runs Anteriorly, parallel to the Posterior belly of Digastric

 

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51

What innervated the Stylohyoid?

The Stylohyoid is innervated by CN VII aka Facial nerve

52

What does the Stylohyoid do?

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Stylohyoid Elevates the Hyoid

and

Retracts the Hyoid

53

What are the attachments of Mylohyoid?

The Mylohyoid attaches from the Mandible 

to

Hyoid

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54

What innervated the Mylohyoid?

Mylohyoid is innervated by CN V3 aka Mandibular branch of the Trigeminal nerve

55

What does the Mylohyoid do?

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Mylohyoid Elevates the Hyoid, floor of the Mouth, and Tongue during

Deglutination

56

What are the attachments for Geniohyoid?

Geniohyoid attaches from Mandible to Hyoid

it runs almost perpendicular to mylohyoid

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57

What does the Geniohyoid run perpendicular with?

Geniohyoid runs perpendicular with Mylohyoid

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58

What innervates the Geniohyoid?

Geniohyoid is innervated by CN XII aka Hypoglossal nerve

59

What does Geniohyoid do?

Geniohyoid Elevates the Hyoid

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60

What are the two Deep Cervical Musculatures?

1- Longus Colli

2- Longus Capitis

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61

What are the attachments for Longus Colli?

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Longus Colli attaches to Anterior Tubercle of C1, bodies of C1-C3, Transverse processes of C3-C6

to

Bodies of C5-T3, Transverse processes of C3-C5

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62

What innervates Longus Colli?

Cervical Anterior rami innervates Longus Colli

63

What are the attachments for Longus Capitis?

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Longus capitis attaches from Transverse processes of C3-C6

to

Anterior aspect of Occipital bone

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64

What function do the Deep Cervical Musculatures, Longus Colli & Longus Capitis both do?

They both are chief Capital Flexors

and

Cervical Spine Stability

65

How many Pharyngeal contrictors are there? and what are they called?

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3

1- Superior Pharyngeal constrictor

2- Middle Phayngeal constrictor

3- Inferior Phayngeal constrictor

66

Where are the three Pharyngeal constrictors located in relation to the esophagus?

They are located posterior to the esophagus

67

Out of the three Pharyngeal constrictors which is visible when the Larynx is removed from the body?

The inferior is the only visible when the Larynx is removed

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68

What is the main function of the the three Pharyngeal constrictors?

They constrict the walls of the Pharynx during Deglutination

69

What are the 5 Neurovascular Structures of the Neck?

1- Common Carotid Artery

2- Internal Jugular Vein

3- Carotid Sheath

4- CN XI aka Accessory Nerve

5- Phrenic Nerve

70

Label

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71

Label

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72

Label

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73

What muscles becomes tight and short for someone with constant protrusion of the head?

Sternocleidomastoid

74

What bilateral actions does Sternoclediomastoid cuase?

cervical flexion 

and

capital extension

75

At Utero what two muscles are very close and then develop and seperate to respected locations?

Trapezius 

and

Sternocleidomastoid

76

Why is the Phrenic nerve C3, C4, C5 in the Posterior triangle important?

It innervates the Diaphragm

77

What perfuses the scalene muscles?

subclavian artery

78

Why does the Scalene muscles lack production of Captial motion?

due to the termination at the cervical level

79

In the Posterior Triangle there's another triangle called the scalene triangle. What makes up that triangle?

Anterior scalene

Middle scalene

and

1st rib

80

Which scalene is deep to the Levator scapula?

Posterior scalene

81

Is SCM and Scalene muscles synergist or antagonist?

Synergist

82

Is the Right SCM and Left Splenius capitus synergist or antagonist?

synergist

83

Is the Right SCM and Right Splenus capitis synergist or antagonist?

Antagonist

84

What vertebral height is the Hyoid?

C3

85

What clinical emergency application is there for Cricothyroid membrane?

the Gap between the 1st cricoid ring adn the Thyroid cartilage is the Cricothyroid membrane for trachiodomy

86

Which Cricoid ring is a complete ring?

only the 1st

87

What sort of bone is the hyoid?

floating and sysmoid bone with no bone articulation

88

What unique features is present in the posterior portion of most cricoid rings in the trachea?

besides the 1st ring the rest are incomplete "C rings" allowing for the esophogus to attach there to allow expansion for swallowing of food or bolie

89

What is the function of Epiglottus?

to close off the esophogus for food/water

90

What is the abnormal passing of food or water into the esophogus due to bad epiglottus called?

Asperation

91

If asperation continues and liquiod builds in the lung what does that result in?

Psnemonia

92

 Which Infrahyoid muscle is most superficial and medial?

Sternohyoid

93

Sternohyoid attaches from hyoid to which portion of the Manubrium?

the posterior aspect

94

Which Infrahyoid muscle is important for swallowing and why?

Sternohyoid

it helps move the airway away from the food

95

Which triangle is the Superior Omohyoid belly seen in?

Anterior triangle

96

Which triangle is the Inferior Omohyoid belly seen in?

Posterior triangle

97

What does the Sternothyroid depress?

the hyoid, larynx, and thyroid

98

What is directly superficial to the cricothyroid membrane?

Cricothyroid

99

The anterior aspect of the Digastric is parallel to what suprahyoid muscle?

Genioghyoid

100

What ligament should be found on the anterior aspect of the cervical spine?

anterior longitudinal ligament

101

Longus Colli is aka what?

Longus cervicis

102

What hold the Esophogus to the larynx?

Pharyngeal constrictors

103

which Pharyngeal constrictor to be visible?

The inferior constrictor 

104

Pharyngeal constrictors initiates what autonomic motion?

Peristolisis- rthymic movement of moving food

105

coughing and gag reflex is initated also where?

Pharyngeal constrictors

106

The common carotid artery and internal jugular vein with vagus nerve is housed where?

Carotid Sheath

107

What is the position of the Common carotid artery, Internal Jugular vein and CN  in the Carotid sheath?

Medial to Lateral

CCA: medial

CN X: intermediate

IJV: lateral

108

What cervical aspects does Phrenic nerve consists of and which is the most important?

C3, C4, C5

C4 is the most important

109

Starting from the origin of Posterior Triangle name the path of the Phrenic nerve.

1- Origin- Posterior triangle

2- the most important C4 nerve root merges and sits on the Anterior Scalene

3- Dives into the Thorax

4- Circumnaviages the heart

5- Articulates the Diaphragm

110

What lining is the Phrenic nerve near and what does it provide?

Close to the pericardium, providing noseoceptive to the shoulder/jaw area as pain dermatome