The Cranium is divided into two. What are they called?
What is Neurocranium?
Houses brain and meningeal structures
What is Viscerocranium?
Formed by bones of the face
The "cap" is known as the what?
What is the Calvaria formed by: (4)
1- frontal bone ANTERIORLY
2- left parietal bone Posteriorly
3-right parietal bone Posteriorly
4- occipital bone MOST Posteriorly
The Cranial Base is formed by what? (5)
1-Frontal bone with Ethmoid bone sitting along midline
2- "butterfly" shaped Sphenoid bone
3-Right Temporal bone
4-Left Temporal bone
5- Occipital bone posteriorly
What are the pores in Ethmoid bone called and what passes through it?
cribiform plate where the ofactory nerves pass
Name all 8 irregular facial bones.
2- Maxilla (pair)
4- Nasal (pair)
5- Vomer (pair)
6- Lacrimal (pair)
7- Palatine (pair)
Name all 6 bones and orientation of the Orbit Wall
1- Frontal (superior)
2- Zygomatic (lateral)
3- Maxilla (inferior)
4- Lacrimal (Medial)
6- Sphenoid (posterior)
Name all 3 Orbital Foraminas
1-Superior Orbital Fissure
2-Inferior Obital Fissure
3- Optical Canal
What structures pass through the Superior Orbital Fissure?
Ophthalmic veins, Ophthalmic nerve from CN V, CN III, CN IV, CN VI, and Sympathetic fibers
Lazy French Turtle Sit Nakedly In Anticipation
L - lacrimal nerve
F - frontal nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic nerve)
T - trochlear nerve (CN IV)
S - superior division of the oculomotor nerve (CN III)
N - nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic nerve)
I - inferisor division of the oculomotor nerve (CN III)
A - abducens nerve (CN VI)
What structures passes through Inferior Obital Fissure?
Zygomatic branch of Maxillary Nerve from CN V
What structures passes through Optic Nerve?
CN II and Ophthalmic arteries
What forms the nasal septum?
Vomer and the perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid form the nasal septum
What is the 3 bony ridges located on either side of the nasal cavity called?
Conchae or Tubinates.
The three ridges are called superior/middle/inferior
What is this bone called and label the parts.
A- Coronoid process
What bone is this and label the parts
A- External Acoustic Meatus
B- Squamous portion
C- Zygomatic process
E- Mandibular fossa
F- Styloid process
G- Mastoid process
H- Mastoid portion
What is a Temporal Fossa?
depression along lateral aspect of cranium which houses the Temporalis muscle.
What is the Pterion?
and what are some unique notes of the Pterion?
junction of frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones.
It is the weakest point on cranium
The middle meningeal artery is found deep to it
Where is the Squamous Suture?
junction of the temporal and parietal bones
Label this posterior aspect of the cranium
A-Sagittal suture- junction of parietal bones
B- Sutural bone
C- Lambdoid suture- junction of parietal, occipital, and temporal
D- Superior nuchal line
E- External occipital protuberance
F- Inferior nuchal line
G- Occipital condyle
H- Lambda- junction of parietal and occipital bone
Name this and what bones does it connect?
A- Coronal Suture
connects parietal and frontal bones
What is the Bregman?
central union of parietal and frontal bones
What is the parietal foramen?
opening in parietal bone that drains emissary veins of scalp into SSS (superior sagittal sinus)
What is the Hard Palate formed from?
Hard Palate is formed from:
Maxillary palatine process ANTERIORLY
Horizontal plate of the Palatine bone POSTERIORLY
Where is the Greater and Lesser Palatine foramina?
and describe what the foramina does
foramina that provides entrances for the nerves and arteries of the same name into the Oral Cavity
Just posterior to the Hard palate there are two openings, what are they called?
Choanae aka posterior nasal passage
what is the Choanae aka posterior nasal passage separated by?
What bone is this and what are the unlabeled A-D
A-Lateral Pterygoid Plate
B- Medial Pterygoid Plate
C- Greater Wing
D- Lesser Wing
Describe the physical feature of the squamous and the petrous portions of the Temporal bone.
the Flatter squamous
the Rounder and medial petrous portion
Label these of the Jaw area
A- Articular Process
B- Mandibular Fossa aka Glenoid fossa
C- Articular Disc (meniscus)
D- Condyle of the Mandible
What is the Foramen Magnum?
Large opening allowing superior and inferior apssge of spinal cord, menines, vertebral arteries, ant/pos spinal arteries
What is this pair called?
What is this foramen? and what goes through it?
between the petrous temporal bone and occipital bone lies the
-the internal jugular vein and CN IX-X1 exit the cranium via the Jugular foramen
Where is the Carotid canal located?
Carotid canal is located anterior to the Jugular foramen on the Petrous temporal bone
-here is the passage for the internal carotid artery into the cranium
What is this foramen? and what passes through it?
Stylomastoid foramen locaed posterior to the styloid process
-CN VII and the stylomastoid artery exits it
Label this foramen and what passes through it?
Foramen Ovale, located on the greater wing of the sphenoid
-through which the Mandibular branch of CN V and Accessory Meningeal artery will pass through
Poster to the Foramen Ovale is what foramen? and what goes through it?
-the middle meingeal artery/vein and meningeal branch of Mandibular nerve passes through
What is this plate called and what is located on it ?
what does through them?
Cribiform fossae located on the Cribiform Plate of the Ethmoid bone
-CN I's axons from the nasal cavity to the Olfactory bulbs pass through
What bisects the centrally located cribiform plate?
Where is the lesser wing of the sphenoid visible?
internally or exterially?
What is this foramen called and what passes through it?
located posterior to the superior orbital fissure
-exit for Maxillary branch of CN V
What is this small indentation?
located along the anterior aspect of the foramen magnum
transmits CN XII
what is this saddle shaped item?
located center of sphnoid bone is the Sella Tursica
In the Sella Tursica: name the 3 parts from the anterior most to posterior most.
Anterior- Tuberculum Sellae
Middle- Hypophyseal fossa- ***houses the pituitary gland
Posterior- Dorsum sellae
What goies throught the Magnum Foramina?
what two irregular facial bones form the nasal septum?
2 vomer plus 1 ethmoid
What is the significance of the Conchae and Tubinate?
it warms the air and creates moisture natural huminifier
Whta is Temporalis muscles important for?
What bleeds out faster, arterial intercranial bleeding or venous intercranial bleeding and where is it most commonly seen?
Arterial intercranial bleeding caused by fracture in the Pterion. where the middle meningeal artery is located
What is just superficial to the Hard palate?
the soft palate
What muscle attaches in the Pterygoid plates and what is it connected to?
Pterygoid muscle for TMJ
What is housed in the Petrous portion of the temporal bone?
the inner ear
What one Cranial nerve innervates all the muscles related to Mastication?
What is a fissure and what is a foramen?
fissure is a slit like hole
foramen is a round hole
What sits just superior to the Sella tursica?
What passes through Foramen rotundum?