1. prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
2. independent or dependent (parasitic)?
3. Do prokaryotic cells have golgi and endoplasmic reticulum?
(What is unique in Prokaryotes?)
1. have a nucleus?
2. region that contains DNA molecule called what?
3. nucleoid region protected and encased by what?
(cyanobacteria = blue-green algae)
2. nucleoid region
3. cell membrane
1. long things called what?
2. short things called what?
1. include what 4 categories?
2. how much larger than prokaryote?
3. is nucleus membrane-bound?
1. plant, animal, fungi, protozoa
for reference (do not memorize)
(Bacterial Sizes and Shapes)
1. range from what in diameter? in length?
2. What are three shapes?
1. 0.2-2 um, 2-8 um
2. spherical, rod-shaped, spiral
(Shapes - Spherical)
1. cocci divide to reproduce - if a pair remain called what?
2. those that divide and remain attached alled what?
3. those that form grapelike clusters called what?
1. include what kinds?
2. most bacilli divide along what axis? most bacilli appear as what?
1. have one or more twists... are never straight
1. bacillus, pleural-bacilli
2. short axis; single rods
1. of coccus?
2. of bacillus?
3. of spirochete?
1. 1 um
2. 5 um
3. 10 um
(Structures external to cell wall)
1. what is a coating or layer of molecules external to the cell wall? what does it do?
2. what are long strands...
3. short strands?
1. glycocalyx; protective/adhesive/receptor functions
2. flagella (he gave names for when there are different numbers... but they aren't in ppt)
1. gram-positive have a single cytoplasmic membrane and are thus called what?
2. gram negative have double membrane envelopes and are thus called what?
look at this
1. the gram negative PG layer is thin and not-greatly cross linked... this allows crystal violet to do what during decolorization?
2. So gram stain differences are due to what?
1. wash out
1. Bacteria can have any or none of three non-essential appendages
flagella, fimbriae (pili), capsules
1. attached to cell wall... provide what?
2. composed of what?
3. highly what? used for what?
4. called what type of antigens?
5. flagella can be of what three types (referring to number)
3. immunogenic; serotyping
4. H antigens
5. monotrichous, lipotrichous, peritrichous
1. are smaller protein appendages
2. present in higher number on a cell
3. used for motility?
4. can participate in attached to what?
4. host cells
1. outermost layer covering some bacteria and provide a slime covering
2. easily viewed under Gram's stain?
3. speical stains are used
4. important virlulence factors
5. can disrupt what?
6. mediate attachment to what?
7. prevent what?
8. can resist lysis by what?
9. inhibit lysis within what?
6. host mucous layers
7. desiccation of the cell
1. several groups of bacteria form structures called endospores/spores
2. resting stage that allows what?
3. When conditions improve... spores transform into what?
4. some spores that can withstand harsh conditions cause what three things?
5. not all bacteria can from spores
2. endure adverse conditions
3. active bacteria
4. anthrax, botulism, tetanus
(check out pic)
1. any process that kills or eliminates transmissible agents
2. cannot kill what?
3. heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, filtration
1. what two types?
1. dry heat and moist heat
(dry heat sterilization)
1. utilizes hot air
2. what are two time-temp options?
3. destroy microorganisms by doing what?
4. used for sterilizing metal, glass (solids) - not for rubber and plastics....
2. 320 F for 2 hours, 340 for 1 hour
3. coagulation of proteins
(Moist Heat Sterilization)
1. moisbutre plays more important role is process
2. mosist heat coagulates the proteins in any organism... aided by what property of water vapor?
3. sterilizes culture media, lab items, surgical equipment
2. penetrating property
1. used for destruction of infected carcasses
2. what temp?
3. will bacteria (including spore-formers), and viruses survive?
2. 1000 C
1. gamma radiation (gamma rays) is what?
2. used for sterilization of what?
3. unsuitable for what equipment?
1. electromagnetic radiation of high frequency
2. disposable plastic lab and surgical equipment
3. glass and metal equipment
1. electromagnetic radiation with wavelenght longer or shorter than visible?
2. non-ionizing with what quality of penetration?
3. used in what?
3. biosafety cabinets
1. used for filtering out bacteria from what?
1. heat sensitive fluids (serum, tissue culture media)