The trunk of the tracheobronchal tree:
Easily recognizable structure, covered by rings of cartilage, in (X) mediastinum
X = superior
At (X), the trachea splits into:
X = TTP (transverse thoracic plane)
2 main primary bronchi
The main primary bronchi enter each lung at its:
Contrast the structural features of R and L primary bronchi.
Right is shorter, wider, and runs more vertically
L main bronchus passes (superior/inferior) to aorta and anterior to which other structure(s)?
Anterior to esophagus and thoracic aorta
What’s the carina? Function?
Midline cartilaginous ridge in last tracheal ring; separates lumens of primary bronchi
T/F: the apices of both lungs are above the clavicles.
Foreign bodies more often pass into (R/L) primary bronchus. Why?
Right (shorter, wider, more vertical)
Upon complete obstruction of bronchus, the lung becomes (X), which causes it to (Y) and the mediastinal structures to (Z).
X = atelectatic (nonaerated) Y = collapse and shift laterally Z = shift laterally, in same direction
Atelectasis of right lung will cause mediastinal structures to:
Shift to the right
Bronchial arteries, branches off of (X), supply:
X = thoracic aorta
Supporting tissues of lungs and visceral pleura
Pulmonary Embolism (PE): embolus forms in (X) when (Y) travels from/to which structures?
X = pulmonary artery Y = blood clot, fat globule, or air bubble
To lungs, typically from leg vein
About (X)% of heart lies on right and (Y)% lies on left.
X = 33 Y = 67
The inferior border of anterior heart (in situ) is delineated by:
The right ventricle
Apex of heart is formed by:
The (X) is the sac enclosing the heart. List layers, from superficial to deep.
X = pericardium
- Parietal serous
- Visceral serous
The pericardial sinuses are (X) of (Y) that form during development.
X = reflections Y = serous pericardium
List the pericardial sinuses.
Transverse pericardial sinus lies superior to (X), posterior to (Y), and anterior to (Z).
X = atria Y = pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta Z = SVC
Transverse pericardial sinus primarily separates:
SVC from pulmonary artery and aorta
(X) pericardial sinus is especially important for cardiac surgeons
X = transverse
(X) valve separates RA and RV.
X = tricuspid
(X) valve separates LA and LV.
X = bicuspid (mitral)
Blood flowing from RV to (X) passed through (Y) valve.
X = pulmonary trunk/arteries Y = pulmonary
Blood flowing from LV to (X) passed through (Y) valve.
X = aorta Y = aortic
List valves with three cusps.
List valves with two cusps.
Tricuspid valve has which cusps?
Bicuspid valve has which cusps?
Anterior and posterior
Pulmonary valve has which cusps?
Aortic valve has which cusps?
Pectinate muscles in (X) function to:
X = Walls of atria
Direct blood toward ventricles
Cista terminalis is (X) in (Y) part of heart.
X = thick, smooth muscular ridge Y = right atrium
Opening of (X) is found in (Y). Through it drains deoxygenated blood from the heart itself, into (Z) system.
X = coronary sinus Y = right atrium Z = coronary venous
Fossa ovalis is remnant of (X) and found in which part of heart?
X = foramen ovale (closes at birth)
Found in right atrium
Right auricle functions to:
Increase capacity of atrium (extra space to accommodate excess blood)
Chordate Tendinae in (X) function to:
X = ventricles
Stabilize valve cusps and keep AV valves closed during ventricular contraction
Chordae tendinae are tightened by (X).
X = papillary muscle contraction
Trabeculae Carnae are (X) in (Y).
X = muscular ridges Y = ventricles
The moderator band is a(n) (X) and found in (Y). It’s part of the (Z).
X = muscular band Y = right ventricle Z = conduction system
Tricuspid valve sounds project to:
2. Left side of sternum at 5th intercostal space
Mitral valve sounds project to:
Apex at 5th intercostal space, below left nipple
Aortic semilunar valve sounds project to:
- Right of sternum at 2nd intercostal space
2. Neck (over carotid artery)
Pulmonary semilunar valve sounds project to:
Left over sternum at 2nd intercostal space
The (X) is a normal fetal artery that, if remains open in an adult, is called (Y) and produces murmur that can be heard at what location?
X = ductus arteriosus Y = patent ductus arteriosus
Just lateral to auscultation area of pulmonary semilunar valve
List branches of right coronary artery
- Sinoatrial nodal a
- R Marginal a
- Posterior interventricular a
List branches of left coronary artery
- Anterior interventricular a
2. Circumflex a
Anterior interventricular a is also called (X).
X = LAD (left anterior descending a)
Coronary arteries supply which specific tissues?
- Myocardium (muscular tissue)
2. Epicardium (innermost layer of pericardium)
The cardiac veins can drain into which structures?
Coronary sinus or RA
Which cardiac veins drain into coronary sinus?
Great, middle, small cardiac veins
Great cardiac vein found with (X) artery.
X = anterior interventricular
Middle cardiac vein found with (X) artery.
X = posterior interventricular
Small cardiac vein found with (X) artery.
X = right marginal
Which cardiac veins drain into RA?
Anterior cardiac veins
The (X) nerve loops around arch of aorta, near (Y).
X = left recurrent laryngeal Y = ligamentum arteriosum
The (X) nerve hooks around the right subclavian artery.
X = right recurrent laryngeal
Right recurrent laryngeal is branch off of (X). Left recurrent laryngeal is branch off of (Y).
X = Y = vagus nerve
At sternal angle, the trachea:
Bifurcates into main bronchi
At the sternal angle, the aorta:
arch begins and ends
On PA radiograph, what forms right border of mediastinum shadow?
- SVC and IVC
On PA radiograph, what forms left border of mediastinum shadow?
- Aortic arch
- Pulmonary trunk
- Left auricle
- Left ventricle
The eparterial bronchus is which bronchus?
Mediastinum contains which structures?
Thymus, esophagus, trachea, and heart.
(AP/PA) X-ray is less preferable due to (normal/enlarged) heart image.