The urogenital system arises from which intraembryonic layer?
Wolfian ducts, aka (X) ducts, are part of (Y) system.
X = mesonephric Y = mesonephros
Muellerian ducts, aka (X) ducts, grow next to (Y), due to induction by (Z).
X = paramesonephric Y = mesonephric ducts Z = mesonephros system
The (X) system, that represents the definitive kidneys, grew from (Y) system.
X = metanephros Y = mesonephros
In early development, one “sewer” called (X) serves as (inflow/outflow) for what?
X = cloaca
All (collective) waste
Which structures in urinary system are retroperitoneal? And intraperitoneal?
All are retroperitoneal
Two early versions of the kidney, (X) and (Y), develop. What’s their role upon formation of final kidney system?
X = pronephros Y = mesonephros
Mesonephric tubules are induced to form by (X). They empty into (Y).
X = pronephros Y = mesonephros
The (X) duct forms along craniocaudal gradient, attaching to (Y) at caudal end.
X = mesonephric Y = cloaca
The ureteric bud grows from (X) near (cranial/caudal) end.
X = mesonephric duct
Caudal (near cloaca)
The ureteric bud grows and branches to become (X). Its branches interact with (Y).
X = collecting duct system of kidney Y = metanephric blastema cells
(X) induces formation of (Y) tubules, which form parts of nephron.
X = interaction between ureteric buds and metanephric blastema
Y = renal
Metanephric kidneys first develop in (X) region. They then move (cranially/caudally) till which SC segment?
X = pelvic
Which embryonic structure forms function kidney units?
(X) cells, that will become eggs/sperm, migrate from and to which locations in embryo? They travel via (Y).
X = primordial germ cells
From yolk sac to posterior body wall
Y = dorsal mesentery
Arrival of PCGs to (X) induces (Y) to form (Z). This then induces formation of:
X = posterior body wall Y = mesonephros Z = pair of genital ridges
Formation of primitive sex cords
At about the same time as formation of genital ridges, (X) ducts form just (medial/lateral) to (Y) ducts.
X = paramesonephric
Y = mesonephric
The indifferent stage has “(X) pipes and a (Y)”. What does that refer to?
X = 6 Y = sewer
Pairs of mesonephric, paramesoneprhic, and metanephros; all empty into cloaca
The collecting system of adult kidney includes:
- Minor and major calyces
- Renal pelvis
What are the two layers of adult kidney? Star the outer layer.
(X) are medullary extensions of the cortex. What’s their function?
X = columns of kidney
“Pyramids” of kidney refers to:
What stops the (descent/ascent) of the developing kidney?
Suprarenal glands are reached
During development, the kidneys move (inferiorly/superiorly), (medically/laterally), and rotate (X) degrees so that (Y) structure faces midline.
X = 90 Y = renal pelvis
T/F: As developing kidneys move, they are progressively revascularized by different arterial branches.
Bifid renal pelvis and ureter arises from:
Too much division of ureteric bud
In horseshoe kidney, (X) hinders their migration during development. How?
X = IMA
Their fused inferior poles get caught on it
An ectopic pelvic kidney is condition in which:
Kidney fails to ascend
T/F: both kidneys are located on same horizontal plane in adult.
False - left is higher (due to liver on right side)
Gerota’s capsule is a name for (X), which surrounds:
X = renal fascia
- Adrenal gland
- Layer of surrounding perirenal fat
Renal fascia fuses (anteriorly/posteriorly/medically/laterally) with (X).
Muscular fascia of psoas major and quadratus lumborum
List the renal vessels and their origin (arteries) or destination (veins).
- L/R renal arteries (aorta)
2. L/R renal veins (IVC)
List the suprarenal arteries and their origins.
- Superior (inferior phrenic)
- Middle (aorta)
- Inferior (renal artery)
Renal veins are (anterior/posterior/adjacent) to renal arteries.
Ureters pass (anterior/posterior) to gonadal vessels.
Ureters are (X) tubes that pass (over/under) pelvic brim at which landmark?
X = muscular
Location where common iliac a bifurcates
Ureters are constricted at which locations?
- Junction of ureter and renal pelvis
- Crossing brim of pelvic inlet
- Passage of wall into bladder
The sites of ureter constriction can be problematic in which clinical scenario?
Kidney stones (Nephrolithiasis)
List nearby autonomic plexuses that innervate ureters
- Superior and inferior hypogastric
Ureters are very sensitive to which type of force?
Pain from ureters follows (parasym/sympathetic) pathway to (X) SC region. Which quadrant is pain felt in?
Lower quadrant (inguinal region)
Cloaca is eventually divided into (X) and (Y) by (Z) septum.
X = urogenital sinus Y = rectum Z = urorectal
Median umbilical ligament was a fibrous band called (X), that was a tube in embryo called (Y).
X = urachus Y = Allantois
Connection of bladder and ureters occurs when (X) invaginates (anterior/posterior/lateral) bladder wall and brings (Y) into wall.
X = mesonephric duct
Y = ureteric buds
During connection of ureters and bladder, the (X) duct is carried inferiorly to the level of (Y).
X = mesonephric Y = pelvic urethra
Upon connection of ureters and bladder, a (X)-shape characterizes the area between the ureters and (Y).
X = trigone (triangular) Y = urethral opening
The bladder sits immediately posterior to which pelvic landmark?
Peritoneum is found immediately (below/enveloping/above) bladder.
Internal urethral sphincter is composed of (X) muscle, which is (smooth/striated) and under (somatic/autonomic) nervous control.
X = (continuation of) detrusor (bladder)
Both smooth and striated;
External urethral sphincter is composed of (smooth/striated) muscle and under (somatic/autonomic) nervous control.
Urinary incontinence affects (X)% of adults and can present in which forms?
X = 10-35
- Urge incontinence
- Stress incontinence
Involuntary urine loss resulting from detrusor overactivity.
Involuntary urine loss resulting from weakness of sphincters.
(X) structure is shorter in (males/females), contributing to increased prominence of urinary incontinence in that population.
X = urethra
Infants in utero swallow and excrete (X). This process contributes to normal development of (Y).
X = amniotic fluid Y = fetal lungs
Polyhydramnios refers to:
Fetus not swallowing enough amniotic fluid in utero
Polyhydramnios can eventually cause:
Early rupture of amniotic membrane (pre-term labor)
Oligohyrdramnios refers to:
Too little amniotic fluid surrounding fetus (may not be excreting it or may be placental problems)
Anhyrdramnios refers to:
Absent amniotic fluid surrounding fetus
Persistent oligohydramnios results in (X), which can lead to (Y) and, if severe, can be fatal.
X = pulmonary hypoplasia Y = respiratory distress