03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.06 Establishing Operations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.06 Establishing Operations Deck (27):
1

The value-altering effect of water deprivation is
evidenced by a search for water.
an enhanced value of water as a reinforcer.
evidenced by a request for water.
an enhanced value of water as an EO.

an enhanced value in water as a reinforcer

EOs have evocative and value-altering effects. Value-altering effects increase the value of a reinforcer. (Note that until the value-altering effect is confirmed by making the reinforcer contingent upon the behavior, its value-altering status remains tentative.) (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

2

An EO
can only increase reinforcer effectiveness.
can only increase the evocative effect and reinforcer effectiveness.
can increase or decrease reinforcer effectiveness.
can increase or decrease reinforcer effectiveness, but only increase the evocative effect.

can increase or decrease reinforcer effectiveness.

EOs can have either an appetitive or abating value-altering or evocative effect. That is, value-altering means to enhance or diminish the effectiveness of the reinforcer or punisher. Evocative means either to promote or inhibit responding. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-376; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

3

Staff know to implement programs when a supervisor walks in with a clipboard. With respect to the program materials staff use, the supervisors are a/an
potential negative reinforcer.
potential punisher.
SD.
EO.

EO

The supervisor walking in increases the value of the program materials. (cf. Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 357-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

4

A teacher mistakenly only reinforces signing during training sessions. The training sessions are what with regard to signing?
an S-Delta
have a value-altering effect
an SD
an EO

an SD
DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS (SD) = a stimulus in the presence of which a behavior has been reinforced and in the absences of which it has not been reinforced. In this item, reinforcement is only available in training sessions.
(Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

5

Given 20-trial teaching sessions with reinforcement provided after each trial, what is being demonstrated if performance deteriorates as trials progress?
value-altering effect of a reinforcer
value-diminishing effect of an EO
abolishing effect of an EO
evocative effect of an EO

abolishing effect of an EO
Due to satiation from multiple presentations of the reinforcer, the value of the reinforcer is diminishing because the EO is diminishing; hence, we have an abolishing effect. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

6

An addict daily taking drugs to end symptoms of withdrawal exemplifies
the evocative effect of a reinforcer.
the value-altering effect of an SD.
the evocative and value-altering effect of an EO.
the evocative effect of the SD.

the evocative and value-altering effect of an EO.

People addicted to drugs are reinforced by taking these substances. Symptoms of withdrawal is the EO. Seeking/taking drugs is the evocative effect and relief of the symptoms of withdrawal is the value-altering effect. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

7

(EO --> resp. --> reinf.) vs. (EO --> resp. --> no reinf.) enables an evaluation of the
evocative effect of an SD.
value-altering effect of a consequence.
evocative effect of an EO.
value-altering effect of an EO.

value-altering effect of an EO.
To demonstrate an alteration in reinforcing effectiveness (i.e., value-altering effect), there has to be change in the frequency of the behavior in the presence versus the absence of the reinforcer. This will enable evaluation of reinforcing effectiveness given the EO. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 376-377Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

8

A young child is placed at a table to work for praise. However, toys are in the room, so he begins to play with them. With respect to work, the toys are a/an
SD.
UEO.
negative reinforcer.
EO.

EO

Toys decrease the value of praise. Therefore, they are an EO. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

9

Given a 20-trial teaching session and the same reinforcement provided after each trial, reinforcement is
having a diminishing effect on the EO.
momentarily increasing the frequency of the behavior.
having no effect on the EO.
having an enhancing effect on the EO.

having a diminishing effect on the EO.

Reinforcement diminishes the EO. Frequent presentations of the same reinforcer results in that reinforcer losing value due to satiation (i.e., the EO is diminished). (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

10

When the lights go off, play stops and children go to their seats and begin working, which then gets reinforced with praise. The lights going off is a/an
SD.
potential punisher.
potential negative reinforcer.
EO.

SD
The lights going off doesn't change the reinforcing value of play time, but it does indicate that another behavior-sitting and working-will get reinforced. In other words, the availability of reinforcement for sitting quietly is "signaled" by the lights going off. More precisely, sitting quietly has been reinforced in the past in the presence of lights going off and it has not been reinforced in its absence. Therefore, it is a discriminative stimulus (SD).

11

To demonstrate an evocative effect of an EO,
similar rates must occur in the presence and absence of the EO.
differential rates must occur in the presence and absence of the EO.
the reinforcer must be made contingent upon the behavior and differential rates must occur in the presence and absence of the EO.
an SD must be present.

differential rates must occur in the presence and absence of the EO.

An EO is defined by its (a) alteration in reinforcing effectiveness, and (b) evocative properties. To show an EVOCATIVE EFFECT, there has to be a behavior change differential from when the EO is in effect to when it is not in effect. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

12

Alteration in reinforcing effectiveness is
evidenced by a change in rate between reinforcement and non-reinforcement conditions.
evidenced by a change in current frequency of the behavior as the reinforcer is systematically altered.
not one of the defining features of an EO.
evidenced by a change in current frequency alone.

evidenced by a change in frequency in a reinforcement condition vs. a non-reinforcement condition.

To demonstrate an alteration in reinforcing effectiveness (i.e., value-altering effect), there has to be change in the frequency of the behavior in the presence versus the absence of the EO, when a reinforcer is made contingent upon that behavior. This will enable evaluation of reinforcing effectiveness given the EO. Note that it is almost always the case that when you have an evocative effect, you also get a value-altering effect. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 264-265; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

13

In planning instruction, a teacher should consider the
EO, SD, and reinforcer.
SD, reinforcer, and S-Delta.
SD and reinforcer.
EO and SD.

EO, SD, and reinforcer.

It is important to identify the EO so that you know when the reinforcer will have value (i.e., be motivating). The SD lets the learner know when the behavior will be reinforced-i.e., under what stimulus conditions. Reinforcement is necessary to strengthen behavior. An S-Delta indicates when reinforcement is NOT available. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

14

high rate of responding in the presence of an EO relative to its absence describes
the evocative effect of an EO.
the value-altering effect of a consequence.
the value-altering effect of an EO.
the evocative effect of an SD.

the evocative effect of an EO.
The evocative effect of an EO is demonstrated when the EO is in place and the behavior occurs at a higher rate compared to when the EO is not in place. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

15

In sessions of 20-trials each, where the student is praised for each correct response, the teacher finds that the child performs better at the beginning than at the end of the session. Which is likely correct?
Access to the EO has diminished the reinforcer.
The SD is no longer an EO.
The EO is no longer a reinforcer.
Access to the reinforcer has diminished the EO.

Access to the reinforcer has diminished the EO.
EOs aren't reinforcers. They alter the reinforcing value of stimuli or events. One gains access to the reinforcer-not the EO. SDs only indicate availability of reinforcement. However, access to the reinforcer can diminish the EO. For example, eating reduces food deprivation as an EO. In this item, it is likely that praise diminished attention as a reinforcer. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

16

I get a headache and immediately begin to look for aspirin. This exemplifies
the value-altering effect of an SD.
the value-altering effect of an EO.
the evocative effect of an EO.
the evocative effect of a reinforcer.

the evocative effect of an EO.
The headache evokes the search for aspirin. Although looking for an aspirin may get reinforced by finding aspirin, there is no evidence of such in this example. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

17

A child with autism engages in stereotypic hand flapping. When presented with flashing lights noncontingently, the flapping is reduced. With regard to stimulation from flapping, the flashing lights are a/an
EO.
SD.
punisher.
reinforcer.

EO-it diminishes the reinforcing effectiveness of flapping.

Hand flapping likely provides similar stimulation as the flashing lights. Therefore, when the flashing lights are present, the stimulation from flapping has less reinforcing value-i.e., the EO is diminished. (cf. Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 380-381; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

18

When lights are turned off, children are to sit quietly, but one day they don't. As a result, the teacher deducts points. With regard to sitting quietly, the point loss is a/an
SD.
potential punisher.
potential negative reinforcer.
EO.

It is a potential negative reinforcer.

19

Usually a child eats everything on his plate, even if he is satiated. When he is satiated, continued eating is, at least in part,
controlled by an EO.
controlled by an SD.
reinforced on a CRF schedule.
(all of the others)

controlled by the SD.

If an EO has been removed and the behavior continues, it is under the control of the SD--i.e., the stimulus present when the behavior has occurred and has been followed by reinforcement in its presence and not followed by reinforcement in its absence. Continued non-reinforcement is likely to result in weakening the behavior. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

20

Every time I get hungry, I seek pretzels, find them, and usually eat them until full. I seldom seek pretzels when not hungry. This exemplifies
the evocative effect and value-altering effect of an EO.
only the value-altering effect of an SD.
the evocative effect of a reinforcer.
only the evocative effect of an EO.

the evocative effect and value-altering effect of an EO.

VALUE-ALTERING EFFECT = effect on a behavior (seeking) when a reinforcer (pretzels) is made contingent upon it. In this example, a higher rate of obtaining pretzels occurs when they are sought than when they are not sought provides evidence of a function-altering effect.
EVOCATIVE EFFECT = momentary influence on the frequency of a behavior. �Momentary� is meant to suggest immediate, without regard to the inhibiting effect of obtaining the reinforcer, and also without regard to the diminishing effect reinforcement has on the EO. In this example, seeking pretzels was controlled (at least in part) by hunger (i.e., the EO).
(Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

21

Hunger pangs are followed by a search for food. Searching for food exemplifies
the evocative effect of an SD.
the evocative and value-altering effect of an EO.
the value-altering effect of an EO.
the evocative effect of an EO.

evactive effect of EO
EVOCATIVE EFFECT = momentary influence on the frequency of a behavior. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

22

With regard to the evocative effect of an EO, "momentary frequency" refers to
the fact that the EO is only going to influence behavior for a few seconds and that accessing the reinforcer immediately enhances its influence.
the immediate effect on the behavior when the reinforcer is made contingent upon it.
the immediate effect on behavior without regard to the fact that the effectiveness of the reinforcer will be altered by accessing it.
the immediate spike in behavior at the moment the EO is in effect and following reinforcement.

the immediate effect on behavior without regard to the fact that the effectiveness of the reinforcer will be altered by accessing it.

EVOCATIVE EFFECT = momentary influence on the frequency of a behavior. "Momentary" suggests immediate, without regard to the diminishing effect reinforcement has on the EO. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

23

What are the two defining characteristics of an EO?
value-altering and evocative
value-altering and punisher-establishing
alters current frequency and momentary frequency of a behavior
value-altering and provocative

value-altering and evocative

24

When Kelly has discomfort from chapped lips, she licks them. This
demonstrates both the evocative and value-altering effect of the EO (i.e., discomfort).
suggests an evocative effect of the EO (i.e., discomfort).
demonstrates neither the evocative nor value-altering effect of the EO (i.e., discomfort).
suggests a value-altering effect of the EO (i.e., discomfort).

evocative effect. To support a value-altering effect, we would need to know the differential effects of a consequence.
The value-altering effect (either enhancing or diminishing) is a reference to the effectiveness a reinforcer or punisher has as a function of the EO. Furthermore, the value-altering effect and evocative effect nearly always go hand-in-hand, but should not be presumed. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

25

Strictly speaking, reinforcing effectiveness of an EO
cannot be asserted if any change in behavior is demonstrated.
cannot be asserted until a future change in behavior is demonstrated.
is evidenced when the EO follows the behavior and increases it.
and evocative effects cannot be asserted until a future change in behavior is demonstrated.

cannot be asserted until a future change in behavior is demonstrated.

Although the evocative effect and reinforcing effectiveness (i.e., value-altering effect) nearly always occur together, strictly speaking, until it is demonstrated that rate is different given a particular consequence (i.e., the reinforcer) relative to not giving that reinforcer, reinforcing effectiveness of the EO is a presumption. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

26

Staff know to implement programs when a supervisor walks in with a clipboard. With respect to implementing the programs, this event is most likely a/an
SD.
potential negative reinforcer.
potential punisher.
EO.

SD.
The availability of reinforcement for implementing the program is "signaled" by the person entering the room with the clipboard. Therefore, it is a discriminative stimulus (SD). More precisely, implementing the program has been reinforced in the past in the presence of the individual with the clipboard and it has not been reinforced in their absence. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 261; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

27

A child wants a toy truck that the teacher is holding behind her back. He says "truck" because when he has said it in the past; she has given it to him. This
demonstrates the evocative effect of a reinforcer.
demonstrates the evocative and value-altering effects of an EO.
demonstrates the evocative effect of an EO and provides no evidence of a value-altering effect.
demonstrates the value-altering effect of an SD.

demonstrates the evocative and value-altering effects of an EO.

Saying "truck" demonstrates the evocative effect of the EO. The fact that the truck has been provided contingent upon saying "truck" and he continues to say "truck," provides evidence of a value-altering effect. Also, SDs and reinforcers don't have value-altering effects. (Catania, 1998, pp. 25-26, 57-58, 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 375-377; Michael, 1993, pp. 57-64)

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