04 Hypothalamus Flashcards Preview

Endocrine (updated 2016) > 04 Hypothalamus > Flashcards

Flashcards in 04 Hypothalamus Deck (49):
1

What does Gonadotropin releasing hormone act on

Luteotropes and folliculotrops
stimulates AP production of FSH and LH
*very similar across species

2

What does dopamine do

acts on lactotrophs to inhibit AP production of prolactin

3

What regulates ADH?

Osmoreceptors
blood vol
stress
circadian rhythm

4

What stimulates oxytocin production

suckling

5

Does the neurohypophysis release or synthesize OT and ADH

Neurohypophysis releases Oxytocin (OT) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

6

Primary function of hypothalamus

site of hormone production

7

What does growth hormone inhibitory hormone act on

Somatotrophs
inhibits AP production of GH

8

What is the target of prolactin

milk producing cells

9

What does GnRH do

Stimulate AP production of FSH and LH

10

What is the only hormone under inhibitory control

Prolactin is inhibited by domaine

11

What does Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) do

Acts on corticotrophs to stimulate AP production of ACTH

12

What does oxytocin do

stimulate smooth muscle contraction uterine contraction and milk let down

13

What is the target of oxytocin

Muscle cells

14

What does prolactin do

stimulate milk production

15

What does growth hormone releasing hormone act on

Somatotrophs
Stimulates AP production of Growth hormone (GH)

16

What does ADH to blood pressure

Increases blood pressure

17

How similar is GnRH across species

Very similar in different species

18

What is oxytocin's role in males

Unclear
secreted during ejaculation
Promotes contraction of ductus deferens

19

What does Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) do?

Acts on thyrotrophs of AP to stimulate TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

20

what is the primary function of posterior pituitary

Site of hormone storage and release

21

How how are hormones transported from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary

Axons of neuroendocrine cells

22

What does the hypothalamus communicate with?

Pituitary gland

23

What is inhibits oxytocin

Progesterone

24

What two important hormones does the neurohypopphysis secrete?

Oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

25

What kind of tissue is the hypothalamus composed of

neural

26

What is another name for the anterior pituitary?

adenohypophysis

27

What is another name for the posterior pituitary?

neurohypophysis

28

What are the 3 parts of the adenohypophysis?

pars distalis
pars intermedia
pars tuberalis

29

hypothalamus role

site of hormone production
secretion of regulating hormones (factors)
synthesis of hormones
- oxytocin
- ADH
communicates with the pituitary gland via the hypothalamic -hypophyseal nerve tract and hypophyseal portal system

30

What type of cells produce hormones in the hypothalamus?

neuroendocrine cells

31

How are hormones transported from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?

hormones secreted by neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus

enter portal vessels and are transported to the anterior pituitary

32

What is the structure and function of the neurohypophysis?

the posterior pituitary
an outgrowth of the hypothalamus composed of neural tissue
contains axons of neuroendocrine cells that project through the stalk from the hypothalamus
stores and releases: oxytocin and ADH

33

What type of hormones are

a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus

34

What is the function of oxytocin in females?

stimulates smooth muscle contraction
- uterus = parturition
- mammary glands = milk let down

35

How is oxytocin regulated?

up-regulated by estrogen
inhibited by progesterone

36

Describe the control of lactation

stimulus = suckling
induces hypothalamus to produce:
- prolactin (AP) > pituitary > milk production
- oxytocin (PP) > pituitary > milk release

37

Describe the control of lactation

stimulus = suckling
induces hypothalamus to produce:
- prolactin (AP) > pituitary > milk production
- oxytocin (PP) > pituitary > milk release

38

What diseases cause production or action of oxytocin to be inhibited?

none

39

pitocin

synthetic analog of oxytocin
has a longer half life than oxytocin but still short so must be given repeatedly or continuously
used clinically to facilitate parturition and milk let-down

40

What is ADH?

antidiuretic hormone
vassopressin

*similar across species

41

What is the function of ADH?

acts on kidney tubules
- decreases urine output
- increases water resorption

acts on sudoriferous (sweat) glands
- decreases sweating

constricts arterioles to increase blood pressure

42

Where are oxytocin and ADH produced and released?

synthesized by neurosecretory cells in hypothalamic nuclei
hormones are packed into secretory vesicles and travel to the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) via axons

43

Diabetes insipidus

more than one type abnormalities of ADH production (common) or response (rare)

lack of responsiveness to ADH
Excessive urination, dehydration, and thirst

44

Diabetes insipidus

more than one type abnormalities of ADH production (common) or response (rare)

lack of responsiveness to ADH
Excessive urination, dehydration, and thirst

45

What hormones are secreted by the hypothalamus? What type are they?

OXY, ADH

TRH, CRH, GnRH, GHRH/GHIH, Dopamine

Peptide hormones

46

What is the hypothalmus

region of the brain (diencephalon)
lies below the third ventricle at base of brain
important regulator of endocrine action

47

What is the pituitary gland (hypophysis)?

endocrine gland connected to the hypothalamus by infundibulum (stalk containing nerves and small blood vessels)

48

hypothalmic releasing and inhibiting hormones

produced and released in the hypothalamus
enter portal vessels and are transported to adenohypophysis

stimulate discrete cell types within anterior pituitary to secrete additional hormones

TRH, CRH, GnRH, GHRH/GHIH, DA

49

What hormones produced by the hypothalamus are highly conserved across species?

ADH
GnRH
CRH