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Endocrine (updated 2016) > Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Review Deck (64):
1

What determines what different tissues get different hormones from cholesterol

enzymes

2

What is the difference between steroid and protein hormone storage

Steroid-not stored

3

What is tyrosine

Hormone that gives rise to T3/4 and catecholamines and dopamine

4

Where do steroid receptors function

in the nucleus/in the cell

5

where are protein hormone receptors

on the surface
2nd messenger system

6

What does TRH do

increase TSH increase thyroid

7

what does CRH do

increase ACTH
increase adrenal cortex hormones

8

What does GnRH do

increase FSH/LH
increase ovary/testies hormones

9

What does the hypothalamus do

Produce hormones that travel to the pituitary

10

What are the two hormones released from neurohypophisis

ADH and oxytocin

11

what makes ADH and oxytocin unique

made in one place, secreted in another
conserved among species

12

What does prolactin do

drive milk production from alveolar cells

13

what does oxytocin do

milk let down

14

What are glycoprotein hormones

FSH, LH, TSH

15

What's the difference between the a and b subunit in glycoproteins

A is common
B is specific

16

What happens when there is deficiency in GH

pituitary dwarfism

17

Is GH deficiency/excess different depending on when the deficiency/excess occurs

yes

18

What is IGF-1

mediator for effects of growth hormone

19

What are the two major organs responsible for handling stress

Adrenal medulla/cortex

20

Why is epinephrine the major catecholamine

there is more of it than norepinephrine

21

how is thyroid hormone secretion regulated

Negative feedback between T3/4 from the thyroid on TRH from hypothalamus and TSH from anterior pituitary

22

What are major effects of thyroid hormone

increase major overall metabolic rate
Growth in young animals
Development and maturation of the CNS

23

Primary hypothyroidism

Thyroid produces less T4
95% fo cases in dogs

24

Secondary Hypothyroidism

abnormality at pituitary level

25

Tertiary hypothyroidism

abnormality at hypothalamus

26

Cretinisim

developmental hypothyroidism

27

Where is hyperthyroidism most common

older cats

28

What are treatments of hyperthyroidism

Surgical removal
anti-thyroid drugs (methimizole)
Radioiodine

29

What are the two major types of diabetes

insulin dependent
insulin independent

30

Which type of diabetes is more common in dogs and how do you treat all dogs with diabetes

IDDM
Insulin

31

What disease is one of the few that you see in young dogs

hypothyroidism

32

What are some characteristics of diabetes in the cat

treatments vary (insulin or drugs)
NIDDM and IDDM
1/3 of cats are NIDDM

33

Is the adrenal cortex and medulla regulated the same way

no

34

What is the renal control of the outer zone (zona glomerulosa)

Renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system

35

What is the control system of the inner zone of the adrenal gland (zona fasiculata/recticularis)

ACTH/Cortisol

36

How are glucocorticoids produced

CRH from hypothalamus
ACTH form pituitary
Glucocorticoids from adrenals
Glucocorticoid has negative feed back on CRH and ACTH

37

What animals produce only cortisol

Cats, primates, livestock, other mammals

38

What animal uses both cortisol and corticosterone

dogs

39

what animals only make corticosterone

birds, rats, mice, penguins

40

Characteristics of hyperadrenocorticism

Cushing
common in dogs
spontaneous and iatrogenic

41

What causes spontaneous cushings

excessive ACTH production (PDH)
most common cause

42

How do you diagnose Cushing

Clinical symptoms
Elevated cortisol
ACTH challenge
low dose DEX test

43

What happens if you give a high dose of DEX

PDH suppressed
Tumor not suppressed

44

What are levels of ACTH with primary and secondary Cushings

Primary=high
secondary=low

45

What does PTH do

increase serum Ca levels

46

Primary hyperparathyroidism

High PTH
High Ca

47

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

high PTH
deceased CA levels

48

Hypervitaminosis D

Suppressed PTH
High Ca

49

Hypercalcemia of malignancy

same as hypervitaminoisis D

50

What do Wolffian ducts develop into

Male repro

51

What does Mullerian Duct develop into

female repro

52

What does GnRH stimulate

LH FSH

53

What do GnRH, FSH, and LH have in common with release

pulsatile

54

What does LH do

stimulates leyding cells

55

What do thecal cells and granulosa cells work together to produce

Estridiol

56

what are animals that are induced ovulators

cats rabbits

57

What are steroid hormones derived from

cholesterol

58

What could happen when iatrogenic hyperchorticoid treatment is abruptly stopped

Iatrogenic hypochorticoid

59

Where is somatistatin and what is it

Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
Hypothalamus

60

What does LH act on in the female

Theca cells

61

What is produced in adrenal medula

Epinephrine

62

What are the 2 main questions of endocrine

What happens if you take a hormone away
What happens if you add extra of a hormone

63

How many steroids are made in Hypothalmus

none

64

What does a steroid have to bind to in the nucleus

steroid receptor