What is another name for the hip bone?
What are the three parts of each innominate bone?
At which joints do the innominate bones
a) connect anteriorly
b) connect to the sacrum posteriorly?
a) Pubic symphysis
b) Sacroiliac joints
At which level does the dura end?
Spinal cord ends at L2 (conus medullaris) but dura continues with the cauda equina
What spinal level is the transtubercular plane found at?
Why is the ischial spine an important feature?
Sacrospinous ligament attaches to it
And the pudendal nerve traverses around the sacrospinous ligament
Which nerve twists around the sacrospinous ligament?
Pudendal nerve (S2-4)
Which muscle group attaches to the ischial tuberosity posteriorly?
Medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris
What happens to the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments during pregnancy?
Which bony feature of the ischium forms the inferior border of the obturator foramen?
How does the pubic arch differ in appearance in males versus females?
Males - smaller angle (/\ shape)
Females - greater angle, wider pelvic inlet/outlet for childbirth
Where does the pelvis tend to fracture?
Pelvic fractures often occur alongside joint ___.
Which neurovascular structures may be disrupted by pelvic trauma?
Common iliac artery
Common iliac vein
Why is pelvic haemorrhage so dangerous?
Occurs without visible signs until life-threatening
What are the structural differences between the male and female pelvis?
deeper pubic arch
greater AP and transverse diameters of pelvic inlet and outlet
shallower pelvic cavity
compared to men
How many frontal bones does the foetal skull have?
Which structures allow the bones of the foetal skull to move and slide over one another during childbirth?
Anterior and posterior fontanelles
When may the anterior and posterior fontanelles be
a) Increased intracranial pressure (e.g hydrocephalus)
b) Malnutrition / dehydration
What are the three sutures found in the foetal skull?
What area is found within the borders made by the anterior and posterior fontanelles and the parietal prominences?
In the context of childbirth, what is moulding?
Sliding of skull bones over one another
Reduces diameter of foetal head during childbirth
Which bony features form the pelvic inlet?
Superior pubic ramus
Which bony features form the pelvic outlet?
The foetal head has frontotemporal (front to back) and biparietal (side to side) diameters.
Which diameter is greater?
Frontotemporal diameter > Biparietal diameter
i.e a newborn's head should be longer than it is wide
What ligaments form the
b) lesser sciatic foramen?
a) GREATER SCIATIC FORAMEN - both
b) LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN - both